Water Investments: How to Invest in Water

We know water is the source of life. But it can also be a source for portfolio diversification. Sounds strange, we know but remember: Like gold and oil, water is a commodity—and it happens to be rather scarce nowadays. So, as with any other scarcity, the water shortage creates investment opportunities.

Key Takeaways

  • Water is arguably the most important resource we have on planet earth.
  • Shortages of water can lead to social, political, and economic disruption.
  • Because of its importance, investors can diversify their portfolios by acquiring water-related assets and investments.

Global Water Resources

About 70% of the earth's surface is covered in water, but over 97% is saltwater, which is unfit for human use. Saltwater cannot be used for drinking, crop irrigation, or most industrial uses. Of the remaining 3% of the world's water resources, only about 1% is readily available for human consumption.

Global Shortage

Rapid industrialization and increasing agricultural use have contributed to worldwide water shortages. Areas that have experienced a lack of H2O include China, Egypt, India, Israel, Pakistan, Mexico, most of Africa, and the United States (Arizona, New Mexico, California, and West Texas), to name but a few.

Pollution also highlights the need for clean water. The dead zone off the Gulf Coast highlights the impact of fertilizer runoff, and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), an additive in unleaded gasoline, can be found in well water from California to Maryland. Overseas, highly publicized incidents in Russia, China, and elsewhere demonstrate that pollution isn't limited to the West. Of course, fouled water supplies further restrict the amount of freshwater available for human use.

$55 Billion Investment in Clean Water

On November 15, 2021, President Biden signed into law the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. The bipartisan infrastructure bill authorizes $1.2 trillion in spending, which includes $55 billion allocated to create clean drinking water, $65 billion in clean energy, and $21 billion to clean up hazardous, polluted sites.

The legislation is good news to clean water advocates since it will expand access to clean drinking water for households, businesses, schools, and child care centers in cities and rural areas. The legislation will also invest in water infrastructure to eliminate lead service pipes.


Here are some of the more popular indexes designed to track various water-related investment opportunities:

  • The Dow Jones U.S. Water Index is composed of approximately 29 stocks; it is a barometer consisting of many international and domestic companies that are affiliated with the water business and have a minimum market capitalization of $150 million.
  • The ISE Clean Edge Water Index was launched in December 2000, and this index represents water distribution, water filtration, flow technology, and other companies specializing in water-related solutions. It contains 35 stocks.
  • The S&P 1500 Water Utilities Index is a sub-sector of the Standard & Poor's 1500 Utilities Index; this index comprises just two companies, American States Water (NYSE: AWR) and Aqua America (NYSE: WTR).
  • The S&P Global Water Index is an index began in 2001 that contains 50 companies worldwide; their water-related businesses fall into two areas: water utilities and infrastructure and water equipment and materials.

The MSCI Global Sustainable Water Index provides another look at the water industry from an international perspective. The index focuses on developed and emerging companies that earn at least 50% of their revenue from sustainable water products and services. There are also a variety of utility indexes that include some water stocks.

How To Invest in Water Commodities

A look at the holdings of any of the water indexes provides an easy way to begin your search for suitable investment opportunities. Companies from blue-chip stalwart General Electric to small-cap Layne Christensen are all seeking a piece of the water market. In addition to direct stock purchases, some of the larger firms offer dividend reinvestment plans. Firms seeking to profit from water-related businesses include beverage providers, utilities, water treatment/purification firms, and equipment makers, such as those that provide pumps, valves, and desalination units.

When it comes to bottled water, the market is growing internationally. Demand is rising from China to Mexico, following the spike in U.S. consumer demand. Estimates suggest that from 2010 to 2020, American per-capita consumption of bottled water increased 61%–the average American drinks approximately 45 gallons of bottled water a year. According to a 2018 UN study, 177 countries rely on desalination for at least part of their freshwater consumption needs.

If stock picking doesn't interest you, ETFs, mutual funds, and unit investment trusts (UITs) also provide plenty of opportunities to invest in water. The Invesco Water Resource Portfolio ETF (PHO) is the largest, with a U.S.-centric basket of 38 holdings (as of Dec. 2021) that tilts toward mid- and smaller-cap companies. The iShares U.S. Utilities ETF (IDU) provides some exposure to water-related stocks. Other alternatives include the Invesco Global Water Portfolio ETF (PIO), which tracks the Nasdaq OMX Global Water Index, and the First Trust ISE Water Index Fund (FIW). Based on popularity, new alternatives are slowly emerging.

The Bottom Line

Recent years have seen an upswing in demand for investments that seek to profit from the need for fresh, clean water. If the trend continues—and by all indications, it will—investors can expect to see a host of new investments that provide exposure to this precious commodity and to the firms that deliver it to the marketplace. There are currently numerous ways to add water exposure to your portfolio; most simply require a bit of research. Opportunities to invest in this scarce resource are flowing freely, so dive in!

Article Sources

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  2. World Resources Institute. "Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  3. World Resources Institute. "17 Countries, Home to One-Quarter of the World's Population, Face Extremely High Water Stress." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  4. Environmental Protection Agency. "State Reports On MTBE." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  5. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Wet Spring Linked to Forecast for Big Gulf of Mexico ‘Dead Zone’ This Summer." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  6. The White House. “Updated Fact Sheet: Bipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act.” Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  7. Clean Edge. "ISE Clean Edge Water Index (HHO)." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  8. S&P Dow Jones Indices. "Global Water Index: Data." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  9. MSCI. "MSCI Global Sustainable Water Index (USD)." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  10. International Bottled Water Association. "Bottled Water 2020: Continued Upward Movement," Page 13. Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  11. Science of the Total Environment. "The State of Desalination and Brine Production: A Global Outlook," Page 1344. Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  12. Invesco. "Invesco Water Resources ETF." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  13. Blackrock. "iShares U.S. Utilities ETF." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  14. First Trust Advisors. "First Trust Water ETF (FIW)." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.

  15. Invesco. "PIO - Invesco Global Water ETF." Accessed Dec. 4, 2021.