How the Federal Reserve Manages Money Supply

Throughout history, free-market societies have gone through boom-and-bust cycles. While everyone enjoys good economic times, downturns are often painful. The Federal Reserve was created to manage the money supply of the nation and to prevent economic injuries to the citizens of the U.S. The Fed has powerful tools to affect the supply of money. Read on to learn how it manages the nation's money supply.

Key Takeaways

  • The U.S. government created the Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank, in order to manage the money supply and prevent economic calamities.
  • One of the main purposes of the Federal Reserve is to act as the lender of last resort, allowing banks to borrow from the central bank when needed.
  • The Fed uses three primary tools in managing the money supply and pursuing stable economic growth. The tools are (1) reserve requirements, (2) the discount rate, and (3) open market operations.
  • Each of these impacts the money supply in different ways and can be used to contract or expand the economy.


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How The Federal Reserve Manages Money Supply

The Evolution of the Federal Reserve

When the Federal Reserve System was established in 1913, the intention wasn't to pursue an active monetary policy to stabilize the economy. Economic stabilization policies weren't introduced until John Maynard Keynes' work in 1936.

Instead, the founders viewed the Fed as a way to prevent money supply and credit from drying up during economic contractions, which happened often prior to 1913.

One way in which the Fed was empowered to insure against financial panics was to act as the lender of last resort. That is, when risky business prospects made commercial banks hesitant to extend new loans, the Fed would lend money to the banks, thus inducing them to lend more.

The function of the Fed has grown and today it primarily manages the growth of bank reserves and money supply in order to promote a stable expansion of the economy. The Fed uses three main tools to accomplish this:

  1. By setting bank reserve requirements
  2. By setting the discount rate
  3. Via open market operations

Reserve Ratio

A change in the reserve ratio is seldom used but is potentially very powerful. The reserve ratio is the percentage of reserves a bank is required to hold against deposits. A decrease in the ratio allows the bank to lend more, thus increasing the money supply. An increase in the ratio has the opposite effect.

Discount Rate

The discount rate is the interest rate the Fed charges commercial banks that need to borrow additional reserves. The Fed sets this rate, not a market rate. Much of its importance stems from the signal the Fed sends when raising or lowering the rate: if it's low, the Fed wants to encourage spending and vice versa.

While the discount rate is the rate at which banks can borrow from the Federal Reserve, the federal funds rate is the rate at which banks can borrow from one another.

As a result, short-term market interest rates tend to follow the discount rate's movement. If the Fed wants to give banks more reserves, it can reduce the interest rate it charges, thereby inducing banks to borrow more. Alternatively, it can soak up reserves by raising its rate and persuading the banks to reduce borrowing.

Open Market Operations

Open market operations consist of buying and selling government securities by the Fed. If the Fed buys back securities (such as Treasury bills) from large banks and securities dealers, it increases the money supply in the hands of the public. Conversely, the money supply decreases when the Fed sells a security. The terms "purchase" and "sell" refer to actions of the Fed, not the public.

For example, an open market purchase means the Fed is buying, but the public is selling. Actually, the Fed carries out open market operations only with the nation's largest securities dealers and banks, not with the general public. In the case of an open market purchase of securities by the Fed, it is more realistic for the seller of the securities to receive a check drawn on the Fed itself.

When open market operations are not working sufficiently in times of crisis, the Fed will employ quantitative easing, a similar methodology.

When the seller deposits this in their bank, the bank is automatically granted an increased reserve balance with the Fed. Thus, the new reserves can be used to support additional loans. Through this process, the money supply increases.

The process does not end there. The monetary expansion following an open market operation involves adjustments by banks and the public. The bank in which the original check from the Fed is deposited now has a reserve ratio that may be too high. In other words, its reserves and deposits have gone up by the same amount. Therefore, its ratio of reserves to deposits has risen. To reduce this ratio of reserves to deposits, the bank may extend more loans.

When the bank makes an additional loan, the person receiving the loan gets a bank deposit, increasing the money supply more than the amount of the open market operation. This multiple expansion of the money supply is called the multiplier effect

What Is the Difference Between Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy?

Both monetary policy and fiscal policy are policies to ensure the economy is running smoothly and growing at a controlled and steady pace. Monetary policy is enacted by a country's central bank and involves adjustments to interest rates, reserve requirements, and the purchase of securities. Fiscal policy is enacted by a country's legislative branch and involves setting tax policy and government spending.

What Is M1, M2, and M3 Money Supply?

M1, M2, and M3 money supply are classifications of the U.S. money supply. M1 includes all of the money in circulation, such as physical coins and notes, as well as deposits held in checking accounts in banks. M2 includes M1 plus savings deposits and money market accounts. M3 includes M2 plus time deposits (deposits that are locked up for a long period of time that earn higher levels of returns).

How Much Money Does the Federal Reserve Have?

As of February 2022, total U.S. reserve assets at the Fed were $215 billion. This includes gold stock ($11 billion), special drawing rights ($164 billion), reserve positions in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) ($35.5 billion), and foreign currencies ($40 billion).

The Bottom Line

Today, the Fed uses its tools to control the supply of money to help stabilize the economy. When the economy is slumping, the Fed increases the supply of money to spur growth. Conversely, when inflation is threatening, the Fed reduces the risk by shrinking the supply. While the Fed's mission as a "lender of last resort" is still important, the Fed's role in managing the economy has expanded since its origin.

Article Sources
Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy.
  1. Federal Reserve History. "Overview: The History of the Federal Reserve."

  2. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Reserve Requirements."

  3. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "The Discount Window and Discount Rate."

  4. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Open Market Operations."

  5. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "International Summary Statistics. U.S. Reserve Assets."

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