The explosion of products and services that have become available in the financial marketplace today are enough to bewilder even the expert. But there are very few vehicles that have generated as much controversy in both public and professional forums as variable annuities. Many brokers and planners view these unique vehicles as indispensable retirement planning tools, while other financial experts warn consumers to avoid them at all costs. Of course, there is no black and white answer to this issue, but consumers need to understand the advantages and disadvantages of these investment vehicles before making a decision.
How They Work
One of the problems that many consumers face when it comes to variable annuities is the difficulty in understanding how they work. Variable annuities probably rank second only to variable life insurance in terms of complexity. They resemble their fixed and indexed cousins in that they are issued as contracts that grow on a tax-deferred basis regardless of whether they are placed inside an individual retirement account (IRA) or other tax-deferred retirement plan. There is a 10% early withdrawal penalty for distributions that are taken before the contract owner is 59½, with certain exceptions for death, disability or other factors. (See also: Advising FAs: Explaining Annuities to a Client.)
But variable contracts are unique in that they offer a pre-selected group of mutual fund subaccounts into which the investor will allocate the premiums paid. The values of the funds rise and fall with the markets with no guarantee of principal. Most variable products also contain living and death benefit riders that guarantee either a minimum account value or a stream of income (see below). But even this information is not enough to allow consumers to make truly educated buying decisions. They also need to know the pros and cons of these unique products.
Variable annuities can offer a package of benefits that are for the most part unmatched by any other type of financial product on the market today. Their main selling points include:
- Unlimited contributions: As mentioned previously, there is no limit to the amount of money that can be placed inside a variable annuity. For this reason they are popular with wealthy investors who are looking for tax shelters. (Most carriers will impose a proprietary limit for initial purchases).
- Tax deferral: Like all other forms of annuities, variable annuities grow on a tax-deferred basis. Only the distributions are taxable once they are made.
- Insurance protection: Most variable contracts today offer an array of living and death benefit riders that promise a guaranteed stream of income or else a minimum account value. The living benefit riders will pay out a guaranteed stream of income that is based upon a hypothetical guaranteed rate of growth from the subaccounts. The contract owner will still get this payout even if the subaccounts lag this rate of growth. The typical death benefit rider today promises the beneficiary the greatest of either the current contract value, its highest value on the date of the contract anniversary or a value based on a guaranteed hypothetical rate of growth. (See also: How to Buy Annuities When Interest Rates Are Low.)
- Potential for superior returns: Investors who hold variable annuities for the long term can reap the commensurate growth in the fund subaccounts over time. Those who put their money in stock subaccounts and leave it there for 20 years or more will probably see a higher return on their investment than can be had from any other type of annuity. Most variable contracts also offer basic money management services such as periodic rebalancing. The fixed accounts that are available in many variable contracts are also often higher than the rates offered by comparable fixed products.
- Avoidance of probate: As with fixed and indexed annuities, variable annuity contracts are unconditionally exempt from probate so that beneficiaries can get their money quickly.
- Protection from creditors: Although this benefit varies somewhat by state, many states mandate that all monies that are placed inside variable or other types of annuity contracts cannot be attached by creditors. (See also: Retirement Portfolios: Adding Crucial Alternatives.)
- Initial bonuses and high guaranteed rates: Many variable annuity contracts will pay an instant bonus on money that is paid into the contract, or they may offer a dollar-cost averaging program that pays a high fixed rate on the initial balance, and then moves the money into the subaccounts that the owner chooses over a set period of time, such as six or 12 months. (See also: Annuities and Baby Boomers: The Pros and Cons.)
Despite their versatility, variable annuities are not all things to all people and do have some real limitations. Critics of variable products are quick to point out the following shortcomings that come with these contracts:
- Poor cost basis: Unlike stocks or other securities, the cost basis of variable annuities does not step up when they are inherited. Beneficiaries will pay tax on the entire contract value that has grown from the date of the initial purchase.
- Poor tax treatment: Although variable contracts grow tax-deferred until retirement, they impose the same 10% early withdrawal penalty as traditional IRAs and qualified plans. All distributions from these contracts are taxed as ordinary income unless the contract was placed inside a Roth IRA or retirement plan. Capital gains treatment is not available. A similar long-term investment in index funds that do not pay dividends could yield similar growth, but with total liquidity and lower taxes on long-term gains. (See also: Longevity Annuities Arrive in 401(k) Plans.)
- High fees: Variable annuities are one of the most expensive financial products in the marketplace. They come with myriad fees and charges, including mortality and expense fees, mutual fund subaccount management fees, contract maintenance fees and other miscellaneous costs. Some contracts will charge transaction fees after a certain number of transactions have been made within the contract. Living and death benefit riders also subtract periodic fees from the contract balance. Most contracts also come with a substantial back-end surrender charge schedule that may not expire for 10 years or longer. (See also: Passing the Buck: The Hidden Costs of Annuities.)
- Complexity: As mentioned previously, variable annuities are one of the most complicated financial instruments available today, and they are often poorly marketed and understood by both salespersons and consumers.
The Bottom Line
Variable annuities can offer many benefits for investors that may require the simultaneous use of several other types of investments and accounts to duplicate. But brokers and planners also need to thoroughly educate consumers on the drawbacks of these contracts before putting their money into them. The real value of these products can only be truly evaluated in the context of the purchaser’s tax situation, investment and retirement objectives and time horizon. (See also: The Pros and Cons of Hybrid Annuities.)