Roth individual retirement accounts (IRAs) are available to people who earn a specific amount of money. This means if you make more than the earnings threshold, you're not eligible for a Roth IRA. Unfortunately, you're stuck paying taxes on withdrawals from your retirement account when you finally retire. Or, maybe you're not.
Many retirement savers who aren't eligible for a Roth IRA do a conversion to reduce the taxes that they pay in retirement by moving their money from a traditional IRA to the Roth variety. This strategy is known as a Roth conversion. It's also called a backdoor Roth IRA conversion because it allows people who aren't ordinarily eligible for a Roth IRA due to their income to set one up by sneaking in the back door, so to speak.
- A Roth individual retirement account conversion lets you turn a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA.
- Roth IRA conversions are also known as backdoor Roth IRA conversions.
- There’s no upfront tax break with a Roth IRA, but contributions and earnings grow tax-free.
- You’ll owe ordinary income tax on any amount that you convert.
- Plan to pay the taxes from another account so that you don't reduce your converted retirement account's earning power.
What Is a Roth IRA Conversion?
A Roth IRA conversion occurs when you move funds from a traditional IRA, simplified employee pension (SEP) IRA, or savings incentive match for employees (SIMPLE) IRA into a Roth IRA. In 2010, the federal government began allowing people to convert their accounts from traditional IRAs into Roth IRAs, regardless of their income.
People can generally invest in a Roth IRA only if their modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) falls below a specific limit. For example, if you’re married filing jointly and you earn $214,000 or more per year in 2022 ($228,000 in 2023), you can’t invest in a Roth IRA. Single and head of household filers, and those who are married filing separately, have a cutoff of $144,000 ($153,000 in 2023).
But there are no income limits for conversions.
Sound good? It can be. But, like most investment choices, a Roth IRA conversion has advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages of a Roth IRA Conversion
A key benefit of doing a Roth IRA conversion is that it can lower your taxes in the future. While there’s no upfront tax break with Roth IRAs, your contributions and earnings grow tax-free.
In other words, once you pay taxes on the money that goes into a Roth IRA, you’re done paying taxes, provided that you take qualified distributions. While it’s impossible to predict what tax rates will be in the future, you can estimate if you’ll be making more money and, therefore, be in a higher bracket.
Another perk to a Roth IRA is that you can withdraw contributions (not earnings) at any time, for any reason, generally tax-free. Still, you shouldn’t use your Roth IRA as a bank account. Any money you take out now will never get the opportunity to grow. Even a small withdrawal today can have a big impact on the size of your nest egg in the future.
Moving to a Roth IRA also means you won’t have to take required minimum distributions (RMDs) on your account once you reach age 72 or 73 after Jan. 1, 2023. If you don’t need the money, you can keep your money intact and pass it on to your heirs.
You must pay the tax bill on your conversion in the year that the conversion takes place.
Making the Case for a Roth Conversion
A Roth conversion makes sense in specific situations. For example, say you have a traditional IRA that you've been paying into for years. You've finally retired and have more income from your savings and investment account withdrawals than you believed you would have.
You and your spouse will also begin drawing Social Security in one year. You realize that your taxable income will increase and your tax bracket along with it. Your IRA withdrawals will then be taxed at a higher rate.
You decide to convert your IRA to a Roth IRA because doing so would reduce your overall tax burden due to a higher tax bracket.
Disadvantages of a Roth IRA Conversion
The most significant disadvantage of converting to a Roth IRA is the whopping tax bill. If, for example, you have $100,000 in a traditional IRA and convert that amount to a Roth IRA, you would owe $24,000 in taxes (assuming your effective tax rate is 24%). Convert enough, and it could even push you into a higher tax bracket.
Of course, when you do a Roth IRA conversion, you risk paying that big tax bill now when you might be in a lower tax bracket later. While you can make some educated guesses, there’s no way to know what future tax rates (or your income) will be.
Yet another common issue that many taxpayers face is contributing the full amount and then converting it when they have other traditional IRA, SEP, or SIMPLE IRA balances elsewhere.
When this happens, you’re required to compute a ratio of the monies in these accounts that have been taxed already vs. the aggregate balances that have not been taxed (in other words, all tax-deferred account balances for which you deducted your contributions vs. those for which you didn’t). This percentage is counted as taxable income. It’s complicated, so you should get professional help.
Another drawback: If you’re younger, you must keep the funds in your new Roth IRA for five years and ensure that you’ve reached age 59½ before taking out any money. Otherwise, you’ll be charged not only taxes on any earnings but also a 10% early distribution penalty (unless you qualify for the few exceptions).
Making the Case Against a Roth Conversion
While a Roth conversion may seem to be a great idea at first, there are situations in which you wouldn't want to convert. For instance, say you're 55 and earning the most you ever have. You believe that the next five years will be your peak earning years, so you want to take advantage of it and keep contributing.
However, you're in a higher tax bracket because you're making more, so you'll end up paying more taxes if you convert. In this case, you might want to wait until you're in a lower tax bracket or not convert at all.
Remember, you must also wait five years after converting before beginning withdrawals. So if you think you'll need to access the funds before that, the conversion might not be a good idea.
Roth Conversion Pro and Cons
Contributions and earnings grow tax free
You can withdraw contributions at any time, for any reason, tax free
You don’t have to take required minimum distributions
Those normally ineligible for a Roth IRA can convert savings to a tax-free pool of cash
You must pay potentially substantial tax on the conversion in the year that it occurs
You may not benefit if your tax rate is lower in the future
You must wait five years to take penalty-free withdrawals, even if you’re already age 59½
Figuring taxes can be complicated if you have other traditional, SEP, or SIMPLE IRAs that you’re not converting
Paying the Tax Bill on a Roth IRA Conversion
If you do a Roth IRA conversion, how and when will you pay that tax bill?
The money in your IRA has grown tax deferred, which means it hasn't been taxed yet. When you convert a traditional IRA to a Roth, the money in your account is considered additional income for that year. It's possible that that added income could push you into a higher tax bracket for that year. Be sure to consider that when planning.
However, you shouldn't use funds from the account to pay taxes. The best way to pay the tax bill is to use money from a different account—such as from your savings or by cashing out a certificate of deposit (CD) when it matures. Here’s why:
Paying your taxes from your IRA funds instead of from a separate account will erode your future earning power. Say you convert a $100,000 traditional IRA. After paying taxes, you deposit only $76,000 into the new Roth IRA. From then on, you’ll miss out on all the money you would have earned on the original balance.
While $24,000 may not seem like a lot, compounding interest means that money could grow to almost $112,000 over 20 years at an interest rate of 8%. That’s a lot of money to forgo to pay a $24,000 tax bill.
Use the tax brackets for 2022 and 2023 below as you consider converting to a Roth IRA.
|2022 Tax Brackets|
|Tax Rate||Single Filer||Married Filing Separately||Married Filing Jointly||Head of Household|
|10%||$10,275 or less||$10,275 or less||$20,550 or less||$14,650 or less|
|12%||$10,276 to $41,775||$10,276 to $41,775||$20,551 to $83,550||$14,651 to $55,900|
|22%||$41,776 to $89,075||$41,776 to $89,075||$83,551 to $178,150||$55,901 to $89,050|
|24%||$89,076 to $170,050||$89,076 to $170,050||$178,151 to $340,100||$89,051 to $170,050|
|32%||$170,051 to $215,950||$170,051 to $215,950||$340,101 to $431,900||$170,051 to $215,950|
|35%||$215,951 to $539,900||$215,951 to $323,925||$431,901 to $647,580||$215,951 to $539,900|
|37%||Over $539,900||Over $323,925||Over $647,580||Over $539,900|
Source: Internal Revenue Service
|2023 Tax Brackets|
|Tax Rate||Single Filer||Married Filing Separately||Married Filing Jointly||Head of Household|
|10%||$11,000 or less||$11,000 or less||$22,000 or less||$15,700 or less|
|12%||$11,001 to $44,725||$11,001 to $44,725||$22,001 to $89,450||$15,701 to $59,850|
|22%||$44,726 to $95,375||$44,726 to $95,375||$89,451 to $190,750||$59,851 to $95,350|
|24%||$95,376 to $182,100||$95,376 to $182,100||$190,751 to $364,200||$95,351 to $182,100|
|32%||$182,101 to $231,250||$182,101 to $231,250||$364,201 to $462,500||$182,101 to $231,250|
|35%||$231,251 to $578,125||$231,251 to $346,875||$462,501 to $693,750||$231,251 to $578,100|
|37%||Over $578,125||Over $346,875||Over $693,750||Over $578,100|
Source: Internal Revenue Service
What Is the Downside of a Roth Conversion?
The most significant disadvantage to converting a traditional IRA to a Roth is that you could have a large tax bill when you complete the conversion.
Is a Roth Conversion a Good Idea?
It depends on your financial situation. It might be a good idea if you're in a position where the taxes you pay at conversion are lower than the total amount of taxes you'd pay on traditional IRA withdrawals. It could also make sense if you simply want to cut the taxes that you pay once you're in retirement.
How Do I Avoid Taxes on a Roth IRA Conversion?
There is no way to avoid paying taxes on a Roth conversion. However, you can lower your tax burden by timing the conversion right. For example, you might convert in a year when your taxable income is lower than it has been. Or, when your current tax bracket has enough room for the added income that the conversion represents (so that you don't get pushed into a higher tax bracket).
The Bottom Line
A Roth IRA conversion can be a very powerful tool for your retirement. If you believe that your taxes will rise after you begin withdrawing from your traditional IRA because of increases in marginal tax rates—or because you'll earn more—then a Roth IRA conversion can save you considerable money in taxes over the long term.
In addition, the backdoor strategy makes the Roth accessible to high-earners who normally would be ineligible for a Roth or who cannot move money into a tax-free account by any other means.
However, several conversion drawbacks should be considered. In particular, a potentially big tax bill could be tricky to calculate, especially if you have other retirement accounts funded with pretax dollars. Therefore, it’s essential to weigh the tax benefits of doing a conversion and consult with a tax advisor about your specific situation.
Internal Revenue Service. “Publication 590-A: Contributions to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs),” Pages 43-44.
Internal Revenue Service. “Traditional and Roth IRAs.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Publication 590-A: Contributions to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs),” Page 44.
U.S. Congress. “H.R. 4297 Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005,” Page 21.
Internal Revenue Service. "Amount of Roth IRA Contributions That You Can Make for 2022."
Internal Revenue Service. "Amount of Roth IRA Contributions That You Can Make for 2023."
Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 590-B: Distributions From Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)," Page 7.
Internal Revenue Service. “IRS Reminds Those Over Age 72 to Start Withdrawals From IRAs and Retirement Plans to Avoid Penalties.”
U.S. Congress. "H.R. 2617 Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023," Page 831.
Internal Revenue Service. “Retirement Topics - Beneficiary.”
Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 590-B: Distributions From Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)," Pages 31-32.
Internal Revenue Service. “Publication 590-A: Contributions to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs),” Page 28.
Internal Revenue Service. “Instructions for Form 8606,” Pages 8–9.
Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 590-B: Distributions From Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)," Page 10.
Internal Revenue Service. "Rev. Proc. 2021-45," Pages 5-8.
Internal Revenue Service. "Rev. Proc. 2022-38,” Pages 5-7.
Roth IRA: What It Is and How to Open One
Roth IRA vs. Traditional IRA: Key Differences
Roth IRA vs. 401(k): What’s the Difference?
Roth IRA or 457 Retirement Plan?
Roth TSP vs. Roth IRA: What's the Difference?
Why Roth IRAs Make Sense for Millennials
Self-Directed IRA (SDIRA): Rules, Investments, and FAQs
Are You Too Old to Open a Roth IRA?
When Not to Open a Roth IRA
Calculating Roth IRA: 2022 and 2023 Contribution Limits
Updated Roth and Traditional IRA Contribution Limits
Roth IRA Contribution and Income Limits: A Comprehensive Rules Guide
How Roth IRA Taxes Work
Roth IRA Conversion Rules
Can I Contribute to an IRA If I’m Married Filing Separately?
Can Teenagers Invest in Roth IRAs?
Roth IRA Contributions With No Job?
How to Calculate (and Fix) Excess IRA Contributions
How Much Tax Do You Pay on a Roth IRA Conversion?
5 Steps to Open a Roth IRA
Starting an IRA for Your Child: The Benefits
Can You Open a Roth IRA for Someone Else?
What Is a Spousal Roth IRA and Does How Does It Work?
Making Spousal IRA Contributions
How to Convert to a Roth IRA
Funding a Roth IRA
Can You Fund a Roth IRA After Filing Your Taxes?
How Much Can You Contribute to Your IRA in 2023?
Best Investments for Your Roth IRA
Maximize Your Traditional or Roth IRA
How Does a Roth IRA Grow Over Time?
One Day, the Gains on Your Roth IRA Will Equal the Annual Contribution
How to Find the Best Roth IRA Rates
Roth IRA Certificates of Deposit
What Roth IRA Fees Do I Pay?
Should You Reinvest Dividends?
Roth IRA Withdrawal Rules
Early Withdrawal from Your Roth IRA: Pros and Cons
Early Withdrawal Penalties for Traditional and Roth IRAs
9 Penalty-Free IRA Withdrawals
What Is the Roth IRA 5-Year Rule? Withdrawals, Conversions, and Beneficiaries
How to Use Your Roth IRA As an Emergency Fund
Can You Use Your IRA to Buy a House?
Understanding Qualified vs. Non-Qualified Roth IRA Distributions
Will Roth IRA Withdrawals Be Taxed in the Future?
How Can You Borrow From a Roth IRA?
Backdoor Roth IRA: Advantages and Tax Implications Explained
Can IRAs Reduce Your Taxable Income?
Options When You’re a Roth IRA Beneficiary
How to Use a Roth IRA to Avoid Paying Estate Taxes
4 Mistakes Clients Make with Roth IRAs and Their Estate
Inherited IRA Rules: Non-Spouse and Spouse Beneficiaries
11 Mistakes to Avoid With Your Roth IRA
What to Do If You Contribute Too Much to Your Roth IRA
How a Roth IRA Works After Retirement
Roth IRA Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)
6 Surprising Facts About Retirement