Financial Theory Articles

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  1. Celgene's 3 Key Financial Ratios (CELG)

    Learn about Celgene Corporation and its key financial ratios, such as the debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio, operating margin and ...
  2. The Top 4 General Electric Shareholders (GE)

    Here are the top shareholders of General Electric.
  3. 10 Ways to Improve Cash Flow

    Cash flow is king. Here are a few ways to fatten it up.
  4. Understanding Periodic vs. Perpetual Inventory

    An overview of the two primary inventory accounting systems.
  5. How to Analyze a Company's Financial Position

    Find out how to calculate important ratios and compare them to market value.
  6. Free Cash Flow vs EBITDA: Which Should You Analyze

    FCF and EBITDA are two ways of looking at the earnings of a business. EBITDA might be better for comparison purposes, while ...
  7. Cashing In on Corporate Restructuring

    Companies use M&As and spinoffs to boost profits. Learn how you can do the same.
  8. The Top 3 Boeing Shareholders (BA)

    Learn about the largest shareholders of stock in The Boeing Company, including individuals, institutional investors and mutual ...
  9. The Top 3 Exxon Mobil Shareholders (XOM)

    Learn about the three largest individual shareholders of Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE: XOM) stock, and the largest institutional ...
  10. 12 Things You Need to Know About Financial Statements

    Discover how to keep score of companies to increase your chances of choosing a winner.
  11. What Should You Do With Your Christmas Bonus?

    Should you spend your Christmas bonus or save it? Here are a few ideas for what to do with that little extra something in ...
  12. Understanding Liquidity Risk

    Make sure that your trades are safe by learning how to measure the liquidity risk.
  13. Why Do Companies Care About Their Stock Prices?

    Find out how a company's stock price reflects its value to internal and external shareholders.
  14. The Advantages And Disadvantages Of The CAPM Model

    CAPM, while criticized for its unrealistic assumptions, provides a more useful outcome than either the DDM or WACC in many ...
  15. 10 Common Finance Terms Every Newbie Needs To Know

    In order to get a better understanding of what you read in markets news, we’ll briefly explore the terms you commonly encounter.
  16. Dish Network's 3 Key Financial Ratios (DISH)

    Understand why some key financial ratios for Dish Network are universally worse than its peers' and the industry average ...
  17. The Top 4 Starbucks Shareholders (SBUX)

    Howard Schultz may have stepped down as CEO, but he remains one of the coffee juggernaut's largest shareholders--for now. ...
  18. The Top 5 Microsoft Shareholders (MSFT)

    The largest individual holders of Microsoft shares remain the company's founders and top management.
  19. The Top General Motors Shareholders (GM)

    Discover General Motors’ top four direct shareholders. Learn about how many shares they hold and obtain a brief description ...
  20. The Top 3 American Airlines Shareholders (AAL)

    Find out about the major individual, institutional and mutual fund shareholders of American Airlines Group Inc.
  21. The Top Tesla Shareholders (TSLA)

    Discover the four largest single shareholders of Tesla Motors, and learn about their backgrounds and how much their shares ...
  22. The Top Four Alibaba Shareholders in 2016 (BABA)

    Alibaba has been rocketing upwards this year, and the major shareholders have held steady. Here are the top four.
  23. The Top 4 Yelp Shareholders (YELP)

    Read about the top major direct holders of Yelp Inc., and learn about the backgrounds of these shareholders and the numbers ...
  24. The Top 5 British Petroleum Shareholders (BP)

    Discover the five largest shareholders of British Petroleum stock, who are all investment management firms with billions ...
  25. What Is a Cash Flow Statement?

    Learn how the CFS relates to the balance sheet and income statement as a part of a company's financial reports.
  26. Reading the Balance Sheet

    Learn about the components of the statement of financial position and how they relate to each other.
  27. The Top 3 Chevron Shareholders (CVX)

    Learn about the major shareholders, including individuals, institutional investors and mutual funds, of Chevron Corporation ...
  28. Understanding the Income Statement

    The best way to analyze a company - and figure out if it's worth investing in - is to know how to dissect its income statement. ...
  29. Understanding Financial Liquidity

    Understanding how this measure works in the market can help keep your finances afloat.
  30. How to Calculate Required Rate of Return

    The required rate of return is used by investors and corporations to evaluate investments. Find out how to calculate it. ...
  31. The Top 3 Netflix Shareholders (NFLX)

    Discover the top three owners of Netflix shares, and learn how the 30-person startup grew into a global streaming network ...
  32. FYI on ROI: A Guide to Calculating Return on Investment

    Return on investment is a simple equation that can give you an edge when fine-tuning your portfolio - here's how to use it. ...
  33. Learn Simple and Compound Interest

    Interest is defined as the cost of borrowing money, and depending on how it is calculated, it can be classified as simple ...
  34. The Top 4 Nike Shareholders (NKE)

    Learn about the history of Nike Inc. and the top five individual shareholders who continue to benefit from the company's ...
  35. Understanding The Federal Reserve Balance Sheet

    We are all connected to the Fed's balance sheet, and the currency notes that we hold are its liabilities.
  36. Digging Into The Dividend Discount Model

    The DDM is one of the most foundational of financial theories, but it's only as good as its assumptions.
  37. How And Why Do Companies Pay Dividends?

    If a company decides to pay dividends, it will choose one of three approaches: residual, stability or hybrid policies. Which ...
  38. How To Analyze Real Estate Investment Trusts

    REITs are much like dividend-paying companies, but analyzing them requires consideration of the accounting treatment of property. ...
  39. Great Expectations: Forecasting Sales Growth

    Predicting sales growth can be something of a black art, unless you ask the right questions.
  40. Trailing-Stop Techniques

    The important decision to exit a position must be based on more than emotion if you want to be a disciplined trader.
  41. A Look At Corporate Profit Margins

    Take a deeper look at a company's profitability with the help of profit margin ratios.
  42. How Return On Equity Can Help You Find Profitable Stocks

    It pays to invest in companies that generate profits more efficiently than their rivals. This is where ROE comes in.
  43. The 5 Types Of Earnings Per Share

    A look at the five varieties of EPS and what each represents can help an investor determine whether a company is a good value, ...
  44. The Basics Of Outstanding Shares And The Float

    We go over different types of shares and what investors need to know about them.
  45. PEG Ratio Nails Down Value Stocks

    Learn how this simple calculation can help you determine a stock's earnings potential.
  46. Breaking Down The Balance Sheet

    Knowing what the company's financial statements mean will help you to analyze your investments.
  47. The Dangers of Share Dilution

    Investors need to be aware of dilutive securities and how they can affect existing shareholders.
  48. How to Choose the Best Stock Valuation Method

    Don't be overwhelmed by the many valuation techniques out there - knowing a few characteristics about a company will help ...
  49. 6 Bad Stock Buyback Scenarios

    Buying back shares can be a sensible way for companies to use extra cash. But in many cases, it's just a ploy to boost earnings. ...
  50. Put Dividends to Work in Your Portfolio

    Find out how a company can put its profits directly into your hands.
  51. The Top 5 Rite Aid Shareholders (RAD)

    Learn about the top five major direct shareholders of Rite Aid Corporation, and learn about these shareholders' positions ...
  52. Understanding the Cash Conversion Cycle

    Find out how a simple calculation can help you uncover the most efficient companies.
  53. Calculating Covariance for Stocks

    Learn how to figure out how two stocks might move together in the future by calculating covariance.
  54. Financial Analysis: Solvency vs. Liquidity Ratios

    Solvency and liquidity are equally important for a company's financial health.
  55. The Basics of Corporate Structure

    CEOs, CFOs, presidents and vice presidents – learn how to tell the difference.
  56. Understanding Rights Issues

    Not sure what to do if a company invites you to buy more shares at discount? Here are some of your options.
  57. How to Calculate Your Investment Return

    How much are your investments actually returning? Find out why the method of calculation matters.
  58. Something Gross in GDP

    GDP is used to gauge the strength of the economy, but what is it actually measuring?
  59. An Introduction to Value at Risk (VAR)

    Volatility is not the only way to measure risk. Learn about the "new science of risk management".
  60. Market Value Versus Book Value

    Understanding the difference between book value and market value is a simple yet fundamentally critical component to analyze ...
  61. Understanding the Time Value of Money

    Find out why time really is money by learning to calculate present and future value.
  62. How The NFL Makes Money (GME, HRL)

    The National Football League is the most successful sports league in the world. How does the NFL make money, and what is ...
  63. 5 Most-Valuable NFL Franchises

    What is the most valuable franchise in the NFL? Are any other franchises close to the top dog? Where does your favorite team ...
  64. How Does PepsiCo Make Money? (PEP)

    A look at how snack and beverage behemoth PepsiCo operates and its key regional markets and products.
  65. Millennials: Prevent a Bad Credit Score

    Here are five ways to help prevent getting a bad credit score that could affect future loan, credit card or mortgage approvals.
  66. 10 Most Famous Public Companies That Went Private

    Here’s a list of the most popular listed companies that went private in recent decades.
  67. The U.S. Ranks 14th In Financial Literacy

    The U.S. is home to many millionaires, but the average American falls behind when it comes to financial literacy.
  68. Bet Smarter With the Monte Carlo Simulation

    This technique can reduce uncertainty in estimating future outcomes.
  69. Accounting For Differences in Oil and Gas Accounting

    How a company accounts for its expenses affects how its net income and cash flow numbers are reported.
  70. Depreciation: Straight-Line Vs. Double-Declining Methods

    Appreciate the different methods used to describe how book value is "used up".
  71. Spotting Profitability With ROCE

    This straightforward ratio measures whether a company is efficient, money-making or neither.
  72. Top 8 Ways Companies Cook the Books

    Find out more about the fraudulent accounting methods some companies use to fool investors.
  73. It's All Relative When It Comes to Investing

    Deciding when to buy or sell should be based on an analysis of an investment, not a target price.
  74. Introduction to Investment Diversification

    Reducing risk and increasing returns in your portfolio is all about finding the right balance.
  75. 5 Must-Have Metrics for Value Investors

    These quick-and-dirty ratios will help you find the most undervalued stocks on the market.
  76. 5 Iconic Airlines That No Longer Exist

    Learn the stories behind the disappearance of a number of formerly iconic airlines that no longer exist following financial ...
  77. Discount Broker

    A stockbroker who carries out buy and sell orders at a reduced commission compared to a full-service broker, but provides ...
  78. The Difference Between Finance And Economics

    Learn the differences between these closely related disciplines and how they inform and influence each other.
  79. Understanding Stock Splits

    We explain what they are, the thinking behind them as well as their results.
  80. Regression Basics For Business Analysis

    This tool is easy to use and can provide valuable information on financial analysis and forecasting. Find out how.
  81. How to Calculate the ROI of Rental Property

    The return on a real estate investment can vary greatly, depending on how much of the building you own.
  82. The Interest Rates: APR, APY And EAR

    When most people shop for financial products, all they focus on is the listed interest rate. Human eyes instinctively dismiss ...
  83. How to Evaluate a Company's Balance Sheet

    Asset performance shows how what a company owes and owns affects its investment quality.
  84. Introduction to Convertible Preferred Shares

    These securities offer an answer for investors who want the profit potential of stocks but not the risk.
  85. Decoding DuPont Analysis

    Get a deeper understanding of ROE with these three-step and five-step calculations.
  86. The Capital Asset Pricing Model: an Overview

    CAPM helps you determine what return you deserve for putting your money at risk.
  87. Analyze Investments Quickly With Ratios

    Make informed decisions about your investments with these easy equations.
  88. Internal Rate of Return: An Inside Look

    Use this method to choose which project or investment is right for you.
  89. Evaluating a Company's Capital Structure

    Learn to use the composition of debt and equity to evaluate balance sheet strength.
  90. How to Get the Most out of Your HELOC

    A home equity line of credit allows you to leverage your home for different reasons. Here are three ways to get the most ...
  91. Analyzing A Bank's Financial Statements

    A careful review of a bank's financial statements can help you identify key factors in a potential investment.
  92. Analyze Cash Flow The Easy Way

    Find out how to analyze the way a company spends its money to determine whether there will be any money left for investors. ...
  93. Household Finances Are In Great Shape

    During the past year, households have taken 6 percent of their after-tax income to either set aside in savings vehicles, ...
  94. How Does Google Maps Make Money? (GOOG)

    Find out how Google Maps generates revenue through subtle techniques that many users may not even be aware of.
  95. Valuing Private Companies

    You may be familiar with publicly-traded companies, but how much do you know about privately-held firms?
  96. Understanding First Mover Advantage

    Someone has to be first into a market. Find out when this can be an advantage for a company (and when it's not).
  97. The Pitfalls of Porter's 5 Forces

    Porter's five forces are a staple of business schools everywhere, but there are some common pitfalls you should watch out ...
  98. 6 Basic Financial Ratios And What They Reveal

    These formulas can help you pick better stocks for your portfolio once you learn how to use them.
  99. The Utility Of Trendlines

    Trendlines give an investor a good idea of the direction an investment might move in. Discover how to make them work for ...
  100. 4 Biases That Can Make You A Bad Investor

    Find out how to spot these four biases, and start making more logical investing decisions.
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Hot Definitions
  1. Gross Domestic Product - GDP

    GDP is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period, ...
  2. Debt/Equity Ratio

    The D/E ratio indicates how much debt a company is using to finance its assets relative to the value of shareholders’ equity.
  3. Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF)

    A security that tracks an index, a commodity or a basket of assets like an index fund, but trades like a stock on an exchange.
  4. Net Present Value - NPV

    Net Present Value (NPV) is the difference between the present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows ...
  5. Return On Equity - ROE

    The amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity. Return on equity measures a corporation's profitability ...
  6. Bond

    A bond is a fixed income investment in which an investor loans money to an entity (corporate or governmental) that borrows ...
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