So, you've decided to sell investments. Whether you want to be a registered representative (RR) or an investment advisor, the first step in either process is obtaining the proper securities license. The license needed is determined by several factors, such as the type of investments to be sold, the method of compensation, and the scope of services that will be provided.
In this article, we'll examine the different types of licensing and show you how to determine which license is right for you.
- In order to market and sell investments professionally, an individual must obtain a securities license.
- What license you need is determined by what kinds of products you want to sell, how you want to be compensated, and what kind of services you want to be able to provide.
- The Series 7 license, also known as the general securities representative (GS) license has the broadest reach, allowing holders to sell almost all types of securities.
- Other commonly-held licenses administered by FINRA include Series 6 and Series 3.
- The North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA) oversees the licensing of Series 63, Series 65, and Series 66.
FINRA Licensing Breakdown
The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) oversees all securities licensing procedures and requirements. This self-regulatory organization administers many of the exams that must be passed to become a licensed financial professional. It also performs all relevant disciplinary and record-keeping functions.
FINRA offers several different types of licenses needed by both representatives and supervisors. Each license corresponds to a specific type of business or investment. While there are several licenses geared toward specific types of securities, there are three general licenses that the majority of representatives and advisors usually obtain:
The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) supervises all securities licensing procedures and requirements and also administers many of the exams necessary to obtain the licenses.
The Series 6 license is known as the limited-investment securities license. It allows its holders to sell "packaged" investment products such as mutual funds, variable annuities, and unit investment trusts (UITs). The Series 6 exam is 90 minutes long and covers basic information regarding packaged investments, securities regulations, and ethics.
This license is also required for insurance agents that sell variable products of any kind because securities constitute the underlying investments within those products. Principals who supervise representatives holding a Series 6 license must obtain the Series 26 license in addition to having already obtained the Series 6.
The Series 7 license is known as the general securities representative (GS) license. It authorizes licensees to sell virtually any type of individual security. This includes common and preferred stocks; call and put options; bonds and other individual fixed income investments; as well as all forms of packaged products (except for those that also require a life insurance license to sell). The only major types of securities or investments that Series 7 licensees are not authorized to sell are commodities futures, real estate, and life insurance.
The Series 7 exam is by far the longest and most difficult of all the securities exams. It lasts for 225 minutes and covers all aspects of stock and bond quotes and trading; put and call options; spreads and straddles; ethics; margin, and other account holder requirements; and other pertinent regulations.
Those who carry this license are officially listed as "registered representatives" by FINRA, but they are generally referred to as stockbrokers. Many insurance agents and other types of financial planners and advisors also carry the Series 7 license to facilitate certain types of transactions inherent in their businesses. Principals of general representatives must also obtain the Series 24 license.
The Series 3 license authorizes representatives to sell commodity futures contracts, which are generally considered the riskiest publicly traded investments available. Representatives that carry the Series 3 license tend to specialize in commodities and often do little or no other business of any type.
The Series 3 exam is approximately 150 minutes long and covers all forms of commodities transactions, options, hedging, margin requirements, and other regulations. An offshoot of this license is the Series 31 license, which allows representatives to sell managed futures (pooled groups of commodities futures similar to mutual funds).
NASAA Licensing Breakdown
Not all securities licenses are administered by FINRA. The North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA) oversees the licensing requirements of three key licenses:
The Series 63 license, known as the Uniform Securities Agent license, is required by each state and authorizes licensees to transact business within the state. All Series 6 and Series 7 licensees must carry this license as well. The provisions of the Uniform Securities Act are tested on the 75-minute exam.
While this test is much shorter and covers less material than the FINRA exams, it is known for asking "trick" questions that force the candidate to definitively know the difference between which transactions and situations are permitted and which are required by the rules. This test also contains some experimental questions that the NASAA uses to gauge future relevance.
The Series 65 license is required by anyone intending to provide any kind of financial advice or service on a non-commission basis. Financial planners and advisors that provide investment advice for an hourly fee fall into this category, as do stockbrokers or other registered representatives that deal with managed-money accounts.
The exam for this license is a 180-minute exam that covers the rules and regulations pertaining to registered investment advisors, as well as various investment vehicles and disciplines, economics, ethics, and analysis. Much of the material is covered on the Series 7 exam as well, as many of the advisors who sit for this exam are not, and may never become, Series 7 licensed and therefore need exposure to the investment material covered therein.
This Series 66 is the newest exam offered by NASAA. In essence, it combines the Series 63 and 65 exams into one 150-minute exam. This test contains no investment material, as the Series 66 license is only available to candidates that are already Series 7 licensed.
Making the Grade
Most securities exams administered by both FINRA and the NASAA have a passing score of 70%, except for Series 7, 63, and 65, which have passing scores of 72%, and Series 66, which has a passing score of 73%. All tests are now given via computer at approved proctor testing sites.
Broker-Dealer Sponsorship vs. RIA Requirements
Once all relevant securities tests have been taken and a passing grade received, licensees must register their securities licenses with an approved broker-dealer, who will hold their licenses and oversee their business (in return for a portion of the commission income). Generally, those who intend to hold themselves out to the public as Registered Investment Advisors (RIAs) must register with the state they do business in if their assets under management are less than $25 million. The location of the RIA's principal office, as well as the number of assets under management, determine whether the RIA must register with the SEC. Registered Investment Advisors do not need to associate themselves with a broker-dealer.
What Are Securities Licenses?
Securities licenses are needed by anyone who wants to market and sell investments. The specific type of license depends on what type of investments the person wants to sell, how they expect to get paid, and what level of service they want to be able to provide to their customers.
How Do You Get a Securities License?
To get a license, an individual first needs to pass the Securities Industry Essentials (SIE) Exam through FINRA. Next, you need to be sponsored by a company that is a member of FINRA. Some companies will pay for a study course and the fees for taking the exam. Then, you must register for, study, and pass a FINRA license exam.
What Is a Series 7 Securities License?
The Series 7 license or general securities representative (GS) license allows the holder to sell almost all individual securities, including common and preferred stocks, call and put options, bonds, and other fixed income. Excluded from the list: commodities futures, real estate, and life insurance.
What Does It Cost to Get a Securities License?
The cost of the SIE exam is $80. In order to obtain any securities license, a person must pass the SIE. The Series 6 exam costs $75; the Series 7 costs $300; the Series 63 costs $147; the Series 65 costs $187; and the Series 66 costs $177. There are also other fees associated with getting a license, such as the cost of a study course to prepare for the exam.
What Jobs Can You Get With a Securities License?
A securities license allows you to market and sell investments. Depending on the license held, you might have a job as a registered representative or an investment advisor.
The Bottom Line
The majority of financial and investment companies that hire or train new advisors will have a mandatory licensing program included in the training package. The company will, in most cases, mandate which licenses must be obtained to sell the company's products and services. Those that decide to go into business for themselves still need to meet the licensing requirements of their chosen profession; the only real freedom of choice comes in which profession is chosen.