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401(k) Tax Benefits and Advantages

Tax breaks, employer match, and more 401(K) benefits

You have probably heard about various 401(k) benefits, but even if you already have one of these employer-sponsored retirement plans, you might not understand exactly how a 401(k) works. Of course, the more you know about 401(k)s, the more you'll be able to take advantage of those 401(k) benefits.

More than 60 million workers actively participate in 401(k)s, with over 600,000 different company plans in place, according to the 2020 (the most recent figures available as of May 2022) report by the Investment Company Institute. Overall, $7.3 trillion in assets are held within 401(k)s in the U.S, according to the Investment Company Institute.

Key Takeaways

  • You can deduct your 401(k) contributions from your tax return in the year that you make them.
  • A 401(k) employer match can help you grow your nest egg even faster.
  • 401(k)s offer protection from creditors, including the IRS, in some cases.
  • Roth 401(k)s are ideal for high earners who aren't eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA and for people who expect to be in a higher tax bracket in retirement.
  • If you remove money from your 401(k) before age 59½, you will have to penalties and taxes on it.


What Is a 401(k)?

Named after a section of the Internal Revenue Code, 401(k)s are employer-sponsored defined-contribution plans (DC) that give workers a tax-advantaged way to save for retirement.

If your employer offers a 401(k), you can opt to contribute a percentage of your income to the plan. The contributions are automatically taken out of your paycheck, and you can deduct them on your taxes.

The average 401(k) plan offers numerous investment options, and many include additional features such as automatic enrollment and low-cost index fund options.

401(k) Benefits

401(k)s offer workers a lot of benefits, including:

  • Tax breaks
  • Employer match
  • High contribution limits
  • Contributions after age 72 
  • Shelter from creditors

Below, we'll take a closer look at these 401(k) benefits.

401(k) Taxes

The tax advantages of a 401(k) begin with the fact that you make contributions on a pre-tax basis. That means you can deduct your contributions in the year you make them, which lowers your taxable income for the year.

To compound the benefit, your 401(k) earnings accrue on a tax-deferred basis. That means the dividends and capital gains that accumulate inside your 401(k) are also not subject to tax until you begin withdrawals.

The tax treatment can be a significant benefit if you’ll be in a lower tax bracket in retirement—when you take money out—than you are when you make the contributions.

401(k) Match

Some employers offer to match the amount you contribute to your 401(k) plan. And some even add a profit-sharing feature that contributes a portion of the company's profits to the pot. If your company offers one or both of these features, sign up for them—they essentially represent free money.

Here's how those employer perks can work. Many companies offer to match 50% of up to the first 6% you contribute to a 401(k). Let's say you earn a $45,000 salary. If you contribute 6% of your annual earnings ($2,700) to your 401(k), your employer would contribute an additional 50% of that amount. That's $1,350 of easy money.

Some employers even go one better and match your contributions dollar-for-dollar for up to the first 6%, which would add another $2,700 in this scenario, thus doubling your annual contributions to the plan.

401(k) Contribution Limits

You can save much more each year in a 401(k) than in an IRA. For 2021, the 401(k) contribution limits are $19,500 and $26,000 (includes a $6,500 catch-up for those age 50 and older), respectively. In 2022, this amount rises to $20,500 plus the $6,500 catch-up.

Your employer can contribute, too. In 2021, the contribution limit is up to $58,000, or (with the $6,500 catch-up) $64,500 and in 2022, the limit is $61,000 plus the $6,500 catch-up amount.

401(k) Contributions After Age 72 

With some retirement accounts, you cannot contribute once you turn age 72, even if you're still working. That means any money you might have contributed on a pre-tax basis is instead taxed at your current rate. And that's likely to be higher than the rate you'll pay once you retire.

Notably, 401(k)s don't have this drawback. You can continue to contribute to these for as long you're still working. Even better, while you're working, you're spared from taking mandatory distributions from the plan, provided you own less than 5% of the business that employs you.

Shelter From Creditors

If you run into financial trouble, it's helpful to have your money in places that creditors cannot access. As it happens, 401(k)s offer excellent creditor protection. That's because these plans are set up under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)—and ERISA accounts are generally protected from judgment creditors.

Additionally, 401(k)s often offer some protection from federal tax liens, which are government claims against a taxpayer's assets with unpaid back taxes. The fact that 401(k) plans legally belong to your employer rather than you makes it difficult for the IRS to place a lien on the account. Depending on the language in the fine print of your account, your plan administrators may be able to refuse outright to comply with an IRS lien.

401(k) Disadvantages

Withdrawals from your 401(k) are taxed at your prevailing income-tax rate when you take money out. There are restrictions on how and when you can withdraw money from the account.

Age Requirements

If you withdraw funds from a 401(k) before you reach age 59½, you'll be hit with a 10% early-withdrawal penalty fee as well as any applicable taxes. 

Mandatory Withdrawals

At age 72, you must begin taking required minimum distributions (RMDs) from the plan. Previously, the RMD was 70½, but following the Setting Every Community Up For Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act in December 2019, the RMD age is now 72.

If you're still working at age 72, you don't have to take RMDs from the plan at your current workplace (see below for details). You will, however, need to start making withdrawals from 401(k)s at any former employers if you have any.

Roth 401(k)

The advantages of contributing pre-tax income to a regular 401(k) when your earnings (and tax rate) are at their peak may diminish as your career is winding down. Indeed, your income and tax rate may rise as you get older, as Social Security payments, dividends, and RMDs kick in—especially if you keep working.

Enter a different flavor of retirement account—the Roth 401(k). An ever-increasing number of companies offer Roth 401(k)s. Like its sibling, the Roth IRA, this account receives your contributions as after-tax dollars, but withdrawals are fully tax-free if you meet certain conditions.

Roth 401(k) Contribution Limits

Roth 401(k) contribution limits follow those of 401(k)s—not Roth IRAs. For 2021 that amount is $58,000, or $64,500 with the catch-up contribution, and $61,000 plus the additional $6,500 catch-up amount.

Roth 401(k) Income Limits

Roth 401(k)s are also an ideal avenue for high earners who want to invest in a Roth but may have their contributions to a Roth IRA limited by their income. For example, if you are a single person, you can't contribute to a Roth IRA in 2021 if your MAGI is over $140,000 (or $144,000 in 2022), but there are no income limits for contributing to a Roth 401(k).

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How Much Will a 401(k) Reduce My Taxes?

In 2021, the contribution limit is $19,500 and $26,000 for those 50 and older, (including a catch-up contribution). For 2022, those numbers rise to $20,500 and $27,000, respectively. 

What Should You Do With Your 401(k) When You Leave Your Job?


If you leave a job ahead of retirement, such as for a new job or to start a business, there are several options for what to do with your 401(k). You can leave the 401(k) with your previous employer, consolidate your old 401(k) into your new employer's retirement plan, cash out your 401(k), or roll over the assets into an individual retirement account (IRA), or convert to a Roth IRA.

What Are the Advantages of Rolling Over a 401(K) to an IRA?

Rolling over your old 401(k) to an IRA gives you control and options, because an IRA typically has a greater variety of investment vehicles than a 401(k). IRAs fees are typically lower than those of a 401(k). Those who chose to rollover their 401(k) can choose between a traditional IRA and a Roth IRA.

The Bottom Line

It's little wonder that the 401(k) is the most popular employer-sponsored retirement plan in the nation. With the numerous 401(k) benefits, this savings plan should be part of your retirement financial portfolio, especially if your employer offers a match.

Once you're aboard with a 401(k), however, don't simply sit back and allow it to run on auto-pilot. Changes from year to year in contribution limits, tax advantages, and your financial needs make it prudent to regularly review your plan's performance and any alternatives that may suit you better.

Article Sources
Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy.
  1. Investment Company Institute. "401(k) Plan Research: FAQs."

  2. Internal Revenue Service. "401(k) Plan Overview."

  3. Internal Revenue Service. "IRS Announces 401(k) Limit Increases to $20,500."

  4. Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics - 401(k) and Profit-Sharing Plan Contribution Limits."

  5. Internal Revenue Service. "401k Plans Deferrals and Matching When Compensation Exceeds the Annual Limit."

  6. U.S. Department of Labor. "FAQs About Retirement Plans and ERISA," Page 13.

  7. Internal Revenue Service. "401(k) Resource Guide - Plan Participants - General Distribution Rules."

  8. Internal Revenue Service. "Roth Comparison Chart."

  9. Internal Revenue Service. "IRS Announces 401(k) Limit Increases to $20,500."

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