Berkshire Hathaway (BRK.A) is one of the most coveted stocks and one of the biggest companies in the world. The conglomerate has made a name for itself, thanks to the prowess of Warren Buffet who acquired the company in the mid-1960s. The billionaire investor spent his time as the head of Berkshire, turning it into a holding company by buying up troubled businesses and turning them around. With names like Geico, Dairy Queen, and Fruit of the Loom under its belt, the Omaha, Nebraska, company has a market capitalization that exceeds $465 billion, with one share reaching as high as $347,000. This article looks at how Buffet turned the company into the success that it is today.
- Warren Buffett purchased Berkshire Hathaway in 1965, turning it into the world's largest holding company by buying troubled businesses and turning them around.
- Premiums paid to Berkshire Hathaway insurance companies remain on hand or are invested as its managers see fit.
- Berkshire Hathaway invests in companies that have a long history of paying dividends.
- Buffett's strategy is to reinvest dividends rather than paying one out to Berkshire Hathaway investors.
Berkshire Hathaway: A Brief Overview
Berkshire Hathaway was founded in the 19th century not as one, but as two separate Massachusetts cotton mills—Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates and Hathaway Manufacturing. The two companies merged in 1955 to become Berkshire Hathaway. In 1965, Warren Buffett and his investment firm came in to purchase and take full control of the struggling company. Under his leadership, Berkshire Hathaway became one of the world's biggest holding companies.
Buffett officially made Berkshire Hathaway a conglomerate, purchasing National Indemnity—the first of what would become many insurance acquisitions for the company—while distancing itself from the textile industry by liquidating those assets completely. The company expanded its holdings to include other insurance companies as well as those in the financial, clothing, entertainment, food and beverage, utilities, furniture, household products, media, and materials and construction industries.
Some of the major, well-known subsidiaries under the Berkshire Hathaway banner include:
- Dairy Queen
- Fruit of the Loom
- Benjamin Moore
- Pilot Flying J
How Warren Buffett Made Berkshire A Winner
Berkshire Hathaway's War Chest
Berkshire Hathaway's lifeblood is what industry insiders call a float. This is any money paid to Berkshire Hathaway’s insurance subsidiaries in premiums but has yet to be used to cover any claims. This money—also referred to as available reserve—doesn't actually belong to the insurance company. Instead, it remains on hand to be invested as its managers see fit. The company's float—estimated to be over $100 billion—is not only one of the largest in the world, but 50 times what it was a generation ago. It allows Berkshire Hathaway to quickly purchase temporarily wounded companies and breathe life back into them. That's exactly what it did with Fruit of the Loom. Berkshire purchased the struggling clothing company for a mere $835 million in 2002 after its stock lost 97% of its value.
One of the prime tenets held by Buffett’s mentor, Benjamin Graham, is that dividends are an investor’s secret weapon. Many of the Fortune 500 companies in which Berkshire Hathaway holds large positions—Apple (AAPL), Coca-Cola (KO), and American Express (AXP), to name a few—have a steady history of maintaining or increasing dividends every year. Coca-Cola, for example, increased its annual dividend 55 years in a row. While imprudent speculators chase hot stocks whose prices are rising, their patient brethren load up on companies with fundamentals formidable enough to allow regular cash payments to shareholders.
Financial news outlets rarely showcase dividend data the way they do stock price and price movement figures, even though dividends provide one of the surest measures of a company’s potency. After all, management will hand cash over to owners only when operations turn a large enough profit to make said payments feasible. Having said all this, it's Buffet's pursuit of dividends that made Berkshire Hathaway so consistently successful.
Pay A Dividend? No Way
If dividends are what attract Buffett to a company, the same rule doesn't necessarily apply to his conglomerate. In fact, the same Buffett who invests in companies that pay dividends avoids paying them out to his own investors. At first, this seems so self-evident that it barely counts as an observation—it makes sense to take the cash that other companies offer you, but never to pay cash out yourself. The only time Berkshire Hathaway actually paid a dividend was once in 1967 to the tune of 10 cents per share. To this day, Buffett claims that he must have been in the bathroom when the dividend was authorized.
That being said, it would be short-sighted for any Berkshire Hathaway shareholder to complain about the company’s refusal to pay dividends. The stock price has skyrocketed since Buffett took the helm, trading at $275 in 1980, $32,500 in 1995, and over $308,530 as of November 2, 2018 market close—a track record without comparison.
Berkshire Hathaway’s rationale is simple and arguing with it can prove to be difficult. Buffett prefers to reinvest the money rather than pay it out. Think about it. If you’re an investor, would you rather have a dividend payment to spend, or would you prefer to see that money put back by the team that turned a humble textile investment into one of the largest, most-respected, and most financially robust companies to date?
While you probably won't be able to purchase shares in Berkshire Hathaway's Class A stock, you may be able to invest in the company's Class B shares if you can afford to do so.
Since a single share of Berkshire Hathaway Class A stock is equivalent to several years’ worth of the average American salary, it’s no wonder that shares trade infrequently—approximately 300 or 400 change hands a day. Buffett has never entertained the notion of a Class A split, as doing so could encourage speculation. Buffett did, however, authorize the creation of Class B shares (BRK.B), which was valued at 1/30 the value of its Class A counterpart. After a 50-for-1 split of BRK.B in 2010, the Class B stock replaced BNSF on the index. The lower price and concomitant liquidity make Class B stock suitable to be included in an index that attempts to gauge the value of the market. Class A stock is too expensive and too sparsely held to make an effective index component.
The Bottom Line
Some investors look for value, then purchase shares of companies that fit their criteria. Berkshire Hathaway takes a similar approach. But instead of buying a few shares, it buys the whole company. After decades of applying that investment strategy, the result is a global conglomerate without a match.