How to Form a Homeowners' Association

Homeowner's Associations (HOAs) manage issues affecting the entire community, such as safety and security, lack of property maintenance, local nuisances, or the provision of services not taken care of by the local government.

A homeowner association is generally formed by developers when a new community is constructed. As a condition of acquiring property in many communities, buyers must join the HOA. As a result, many people wind up joining HOAs without truly understanding what they are or how they work, just because they fall in love with a particular home.

Key Takeaways

  • Housing developers often create homeowner associations (HOAs), as part of newly constructed neighborhoods or gated communities.
  • It is crucial that HOA officers keep up-to-date financial records of operations.
  • Homeowner associations (HOAs) rules do not deflect federal, state, and local government regulations.
  • An HOA has a board of directors who oversee the operation of the HOA and enforce the HOA's rules and bylaws.
  • If you belong to an HOA, you will pay dues in return for services offered in your community.

Growth in HOAs

Homeowner associations (HOAs) have become more and more prevalent. The explosive growth in the formation of condominium developments, homeowners' associations, and cooperatives took place after 1970 (when these three forms of American collective housing ownership represented only about 1 % of U.S. housing). By 2010, however, there were more than 300,000 community associations housing more than 60 million Americans, and representing 20% of the population. Between 1980 and 2000, half the new housing in the United States was built and organized under the private governance of a community association.

As of 2021, and according to HOA-USA, there are over 370,000 homeowner associations in the United States. Collectively, this represents over 40 million households (over 53% of the owner-occupied households in America).

Learn Local Laws on HOAs

State property codes set forth the legal guidelines for establishing a homeowners' association. In Texas, for example, property code chapter 204 says a three-person committee must form to petition for the formation of a property owners association (POA).

The committee must file official written notice that it intends to create a POA with mandatory membership. All of the record owners in a subdivision must be notified, and the owners of at least 60% of the property must sign and approve the petition within one year. Once the POA exists, it can create restrictions through a separate petition process that requires the approval of the owners of at least 75% of the subdivision's property.

Establishing the HOA

The process for establishing an HOA depends on where the HOA is located, but the following steps will probably be required.

  1. Establishing a business structure by forming an LLC or nonprofit corporation.
  2. Creating covenants, conditions, and restrictions (CC&Rs) that describe how the HOA will operate and what rules homeowners must abide by.
  3. Establishing a procedure for future modification of the CC&Rs.
  4. Writing rules and regulations that put the CC&Rs into easy-to-understand language for community residents.
  5. Drawing up governing documents, such as articles of incorporation and bylaws, which outline meeting frequency, voting guidelines, the election of HOA leaders, and other operating procedures.
  6. Electing qualified officers/board members. For example, the treasurer actually needs to understand how to keep books and manage money, for example.

If the people establishing the HOA are not experts in real estate law, hiring an attorney with HOA expertise would be a sound decision at this stage. The HOA will not be able to enforce its rules if they are challenged and found not to be legal. A good attorney can also point out key issues HOA leaders should pay attention to, such as fair housing laws, to avoid legal problems once the association is up and running. Federal, state, and local government regulations have precedence over HOA rules.

Protect the HOA

The officers and board of directors are in charge of running and overseeing the HOA. Along with this high level of responsibility comes a high level of risk. The HOA needs a way to protect itself if a homeowner decides to sue.

A homeowner has the right to sue the HOA or an individual member for breach of its fiduciary duties. Why might a homeowner sue? Among the most common reasons are harassment or housing discrimination, contract violations, misappropriation of funds, remodeling disputes, and failure to make repairs.

Directors' and officers' insurance provides financial protection to the people running the HOA. It covers both legal defense costs and damages. However, it does not cover intentional misconduct. Employee theft insurance can protect the association if a director, officer, or property manager embezzles HOA funds.

Keep Sound Financial Records

An HOA needs money to function, and that money comes from the community's residents. Some of the money funds the HOA's administration (e.g., legal, accounting, and management services), but most of the money goes toward the upkeep of common areas.

It might pay for landscaping services, pool maintenance, and even garbage collection. A portion of the money is spent every month, and the rest is set aside in a reserve fund. Sometimes a major expense will arise that can't be paid for out of the HOA's reserve fund. In that case, the HOA will require residents to pay an extra fee called a special assessment.

A new HOA will need to perform a funding analysis and construct a budget to determine how much to collect in monthly dues from the owner(s) of each property. The analysis is based on which expenses will be paid by community members, how much they will cost, how much will be allocated to the reserve fund, and the percentage of the community's property owned by each resident.

Also, the reserve fund must be managed and invested to keep the HOA financially sound (for example, the fund's value must be preserved against inflation).

Keep Homeowners Informed

As members of the community who pay dues and are affected by the HOA's decisions, residents must be kept informed of the HOA's activities and any issues affecting the community.

HOAs must hold regular meetings and notify residents far enough in advance that everyone has the opportunity to attend. They must also hold elections for directors and officers and ensure everyone has the opportunity to vote. A community newsletter, email, and/or website can also help keep homeowners in the loop.

HOA officers and directors should keep detailed records of their activities, such as minutes from community meetings. Associations should disclose important financial information to community members on a regular basis. Members should be aware of their rights to view HOA records and be granted access upon request.

Enforcing Rules

HOAs are rule-based communities, so from time to time, they must enforce rules community members are breaking. HOAs must also handle complaints from residents about existing rules they don't like or rules they feel should be added to solve an ongoing problem.

HOAs must enforce rules quickly and consistently. Homeowners refusing to comply should be fined. If a homeowner refuses to comply, the HOA may need to send the account to collections or sue the homeowner. HOAs should avoid selective enforcement—in other words, they shouldn't play favorites with HOA leaders or community residents with whom they are friends. Biased behavior can lead to a lawsuit.

Hiring a professional management company can reduce the burden on an HOA's officers and directors and eliminate a potential source of conflict between HOA leaders and other members of the community. The management company can take over much of the administrative work and deal with unpleasantries such as enforcing rules and collecting dues. It can also use its expertise in property management to ensure the smooth operation of the community and avoid mistakes inexperienced officers and directors might make. However, professional management costs money, which means homeowners' monthly HOA fees will be higher. 

The worst-case scenario for rule enforcement involves foreclosing on a homeowner's property for nonpayment of dues or special assessments. This extreme measure can create a contentious situation between the homeowner and the HOA. Foreclosures also bring down property values, which isn't good for the other residents in the neighborhood.

Host Community Gatherings

HOAs can be strictly about business, but they don't have to be. An occasional fun activity allows HOA members to get to know each other on a friendly, social basis, not just in the potentially adversarial setting of an HOA meeting. If neighbors know each other personally, the community can be a more pleasant place to live and conflicts can be easier to resolve.

The Bottom Line

Forming and managing a homeowners association is a huge task with significant responsibilities and major implications. If you're considering buying a property in an HOA, understand what you're getting into before you buy. 

Article Sources
Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy.
  1. Mercatus Center. "Community Associations at Middle Age."

  2. HOA-USA. "About HOA-USA."

  3. Texas Constitution and Statutes. "Property Code-Title 11. Restrictive Covenants. Chapter 204. Powers Of Property Owner's Association Relating To Restrictive Covenants In Certain Subdivisions.."

  4. Cedar Management Group. "How To Start An HOA For Your Community."

  5. FindLaw. "5 Reasons to Potentially Sue Your HOA."

Take the Next Step to Invest
The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where listings appear. Investopedia does not include all offers available in the marketplace.