529 Plan Contribution Limits in 2022

What you can contribute to help fund someone’s education

What Is a 529 Savings Plan?

Families need to save as much as possible, as early as possible to get ahead of rising education costs. According to a research report from College Board, the average cost of attending a public four-year college, including tuition and fees, in the 2021–2022 school year is $10,740 for an in-state student and $27,560 for out-of-state students. A year at a private college averages even more: $38,070.

Named after the section of the Internal Revenue Code that established them, 529 savings plans are one of the nation’s best ways to save for higher education expenses. These qualified tuition plans allow federal tax-free withdrawal of earnings and the potential for tax deductions, which can help families afford the rapidly increasing cost of college.

A primary benefit of 529 plans is the high contribution limit. Each state operates its own 529 plan and makes its own rules for the plan, so maximum balance limits per beneficiary vary across states. Fortunately, 529 limits are usually high enough that most will never have to worry about hitting the ceiling, although anyone who considers attending a private university could need to save a significant amount of money.

Key Takeaways

  • A 529 plan allows you to save and grow tax-free money for someone’s education, including your own.
  • Beneficiaries must spend the money on qualified education expenses for the withdrawal to be considered tax free.
  • There are two types of 529 plans: prepaid tuition plans and savings plans.
  • Maximum plan balance limits vary by state, but such limits generally do not apply across states.

How a 529 Plan Works

A 529 plan allows investors to save and grow money on behalf of a beneficiary, such as a child, grandchild, niece, nephew, or even for themselves. The money grows tax free and can be withdrawn tax free, provided it is used for qualified higher education expenses (QHEEs). These include tuition and fees; certain electronics, such as a computer; books and classroom equipment; and some room and board costs.

Plan distributions that are used to pay for items that are not QHEEs are subject to state and federal income taxes and an additional 10% federal tax penalty on earnings, with exceptions made for certain circumstances, such as death and disability.

There are two main types of 529 plans: prepaid tuition plans, in which the plan holder pays in advance for the beneficiary’s tuition and fees at a specific school, and savings plans, which are tax-advantaged investment vehicles similar to individual retirement accounts (IRAs). 

How Are 529 Contribution Limits Determined?

To qualify as a 529 plan under federal rules, plan balances cannot exceed the expected cost of a beneficiary’s QHEE. The generally accepted guideline is that this limit constitutes five years of tuition, room, and board at the most expensive college in the United States.

This guideline makes investment contribution limits quite large, although every state is allowed to individually interpret what five years of qualified education costs means. Potential contributors can check their state’s 529 limits to determine specific investment maximums.

Although originally structured to fund postsecondary education, 529 plans can now also be used to fund private K–12 education and apprenticeship programs registered and certified with the U.S. Secretary of Labor.

State-Specific 529 Contribution Limits

Every state’s 529 plan allows for contributions up to a total balance limit of at least $235,000 per beneficiary. Georgia and Mississippi have the lowest maximum balance limits at $235,000, followed by North Dakota at $269,000.

On the high end, states such as Idaho, Louisiana, Michigan, and Washington, as well as the District of Columbia, have maximum limits of $500,000. Pennsylvania’s limit is $511,758, South Carolina’s and New York’s are both $520,000, and California’s is $529,000. Once the balance limit is reached, any contributions made to the account are not accepted and will be returned to the investor.

Typically, there is no annual contribution limit, but the total amount in a beneficiary’s account can’t exceed the balance limit. Also, the total balance limits apply to each beneficiary. For example, in Georgia, which has a $235,000 maximum contribution limit, if parents contribute $200,000 for a beneficiary, grandparents cannot also contribute $200,000 for the same beneficiary.

However, contribution maximums generally do not apply across states. An investor hitting the maximum in one state likely would be eligible to contribute more money in another state’s plan. To be safe, individuals should check with plan administrators first to make sure this is allowed.

$464 billion

The amount of assets invested in 529 plans as of June 2021, according to the Federal Reserve. 

Limit for Repaying Student Loans

Under the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019, you can also use a 529 plan to pay off up to $10,000 of your existing student loan debt. Note that this $10,000 limit is a cumulative lifetime limit.

Gift Tax Considerations

Normally, annual contributions to any individual above a certain threshold ($15,000 in 2021 and $16,000 in 2022) would count against your $12.06 million (or $24.12 million for married couples) lifetime gift tax exemption.

However, there is an exception made for contributions within a 529 plan. In 2022, for example, a grandparent can give an $80,000 one-time lump-sum contribution to a 529 plan with the understanding that it would cover five years’ worth of gifts. As long as that person doesn’t contribute again in the next five years, there are no tax consequences.

Your taxable income is not reduced by contributing to a 529 plan. However, more than 30 states give out tax deductions or credits for contributions made to one, according to the informational website SavingforCollege.com.

Who can contribute to a 529 plan?

Anyone can contribute to a 529 plan account and name anyone as a beneficiary. Parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles, stepparents, spouses, and friends are all allowed to contribute on behalf of a beneficiary.

How much can I contribute to my 529 plan per year?

You can contribute as much as you like each year, provided you don’t surpass the maximum balance limit set by the state where the 529 plan is registered. It’s worth noting, however, that 529 contributions are treated by the Internal Revenue Service as gifts and thus may be subject to taxation when totaling more than $16,000 in a year or $80,000 over five years.

Do 529s have a maximum contribution limit?

Yes, there is a maximum contribution limit for each beneficiary up to the total balance limit allowed, depending on the state, and can range from $235,000 to $529,000. However, there is no annual contribution limit as long as the beneficiary’s account balance doesn’t exceed the total balance limit.

The Bottom Line

Learn plan limits for your state and how these plans work to maximize your benefits from saving in a 529 plan. The lump-sum contribution can help plans grow for those who can afford them.

Article Sources
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  2. Internal Revenue Service. “Topic No. 313 Qualified Tuition Programs (QTPs).” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  3. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. “An Introduction to 529 Plans.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  4. U.S. House of Representatives, United States Code, Office of the Law Revision Counsel. “26 USC 529: Qualified Tuition Programs: (d) Reports: (3) Qualified Higher Education Expenses.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  5. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. “An Introduction to 529 Plans: How Does Investing in a 529 Plan Affect Federal and State Income Taxes?” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  6. Investor.gov. “529 Plans.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  7. College Savings Plans Network. “Find My State’s 529 Plan.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  8. U.S. Congress (115th Congress, 1st Session). “H. R. 1: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act,” Pages 95–96. Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  9. Path2College 529 Plan (State of Georgia). “Frequently Asked Questions: Contributions.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  10. Mississippi Affordable College Savings Program. “MACS Disclosure Booklet,” Page 11. Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  11. North Dakota State Government, Workforce Development. “North Dakota’s 529 College Savings Plan,” Page 13. Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  12. WA529, Washington College Savings Plans. “DreamAhead FAQs: Adding to an Account: Are There Any Contribution Limits to a DreamAhead?” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  13. DC College Savings Plan. “About: Costs and Contributions.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  14. MESP, Michigan Education Savings Program. “Program Details & Information.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  15. Louisiana’s Student Tuition Assistance & Revenue Trust. “Home Page.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  16. IDeal, Idaho College Savings Program. “Disclosure Statement,” Page 5 (Page 13 of PDF). Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  17. Future Scholar, South Carolina’s 529 College Savings Plan. “Common Questions.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  18. ScholarShare 529 (State of California). “ScholarShare529: Frequently Asked Questions.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

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  20. PA529 (Pennsylvania Treasury). “PA529: Guaranteed Savings Plan: Enrollment Guide,” Page 6 (Page 9 of PDF). Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  21. Federal Reserve System. “Section 529 College Plans by State.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  22. Bloomberg. “Americans Have More Than $460 Billion in College Savings Plans. It’s Not Enough.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  23. U.S. Congress (116th Congress, 1st Session). “H.R.1994 — Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019.” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  24. Internal Revenue Service. “Frequently Asked Questions on Gift Taxes: How Many Annual Exclusions Are Available?” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  25. Internal Revenue Service. “Instructions for Form 709: Schedule A. Computation of Taxable Gifts: Line B. Qualified Tuition Programs (529 Plans or Programs).” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

  26. Saving for College. “How Much Is Your State’s 529 Plan Tax Deduction Really Worth?” Accessed Dec. 26, 2021.

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