Your child (or grandchild) might be just a two-year-old, but it's not too early to start figuring out how you'll pay for college. Here's why: according to the College Savings Plans Network, it's estimated that, at an inflation rate of 6%, it will cost $261,277 to send a child who is a toddler in 2022 to an in-state, public college for four years, including tuition, fees, room, and board. Are you thinking about a private college? That’s going to run $598,063 by the time your toddler is ready for higher education!.
- The cost of college keeps rising, so it's wise for parents and grandparents to start savings plans when kids/grandkids are young.
- A 529 plan is one of the best tax-advantaged ways to save for higher education.
- Traditional and Roth IRAs can be used to pay for college expenses, but parents should be sure their retirement needs are covered.
The Cost of Going to College
College costs tend to increase at about two times the rate of inflation each year; a trend that is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Here’s what you can expect to pay for each year of tuition, fees, and room and board by the time your kids (or grandkids) are ready to head off to college (assuming a steady 6% college cost inflation rate):
|Estimated Annual Future College Costs|
|Current Age||In-State Public||Out-of-State Public||Private|
Note: Want an estimate of how much it will cost to send your child or grandchild to college? Use the College Cost Calculator at the College Savings Plans Network.
Keep in mind, these numbers represent a single year of costs; the number of years your child attends college will depend on the degree(s) they are seeking. While many students will qualify for financial aid, scholarships, and grants to help cover college costs, there are a number of ways to trim college costs.
One of the easiest ways is to invest the money you’ve set aside for your child or grandchild’s college years is in tax-smart investment vehicles. These plans and accounts allow you to efficiently save for your child or grandchild’s education while shielding the savings from the IRS as much as possible.
“One of the best ways to help a child financially while limiting your own tax liability is to use a 529 college plan,” says Sam Davis, partner/financial advisor with TBH Global Asset Management. A 529 plan is a tax-advantaged investment plan that lets families save for the future college costs of a beneficiary.
Plans have high limits on contributions, which are made with after-tax dollars. You can contribute up to the annual exclusion amount each year, which is $16,000 in 2022 (the "annual exclusion" is the maximum amount you can transfer by gift, in the form of cash or other assets, to as many people as you wish, without incurring a gift tax). The amount will increase to $17,000 in 2023. All withdrawals from the 529 are free from federal income tax as long as they are used for qualified education expenses (most states offer tax-free withdrawals, as well).
Those who have the funds can "superfund" a 529 plan by contributing five years of gifts at once, per child, per person without being subject to the gift tax. This means, for example, that a pair of super-wealthy grandparents could contribute $75,000 each ($150,000 per couple) when a child is young and let that money grow to cover their entire costs. There are complicated rules about how to do this, so don't try it without detailed tax advice.
The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act, signed into law by President Donald Trump in December 2019, created multiple provisions intended to improve retirement and savings plans. Under the new law, 529 plan funds can now be used to pay off up to $10,000 in student loans, and the funds can also be used to pay for expenses related to registered apprenticeship programs.
Types of 529 Plans
There are two types of 529 plans:
College Savings Plans
These savings plans work like other investment plans, such as 401(k)s and individual retirement accounts (IRAs), in that your contributions are invested in mutual funds or other investment products. Account earnings are based on the market performance of the underlying investments, and most plans offer age-based investment options that become more conservative as the beneficiary nears college age. The 529 savings plans can only be administered at the state level.
Prepaid Tuition Plans
Prepaid tuition plans (also called guaranteed savings plans) allow families to lock in today’s tuition rate by pre-purchasing tuition. The program pays out at the future cost to any of the state's eligible institutions when the beneficiary is in college. If the beneficiary ends up going to an out-of-state or private school, you can transfer the value of the account or get a refund. Prepaid tuition plans can be administered by states and higher education institutions, though a limited number of states have them.
“I strongly advise my clients to fund 529 plans for the unsurpassed income tax breaks,” Davis says. “Although the contributions are not deductible on your federal tax return, your investment grows tax-deferred, and distributions to pay for the beneficiary's college costs come out federally tax-free.”
Traditional and Roth IRAs
An IRA is a tax-advantaged savings account where you keep investments such as stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. You get to choose the investments in the account and can adjust the investments as your needs and goals change.
Under the SECURE Act, you can now wait until age 73 (for people born between 1951 and 1959) or age 75 (for those born in 1960 or later) to begin taking required minimum distributions (RMDs), and the law removed the age requirement for depositing money into a traditional IRA, so you can continue making contributions at any age if you are still working. In general, if you withdraw from your IRA before you are 59½ years old, you will owe a 10% additional tax on the early distribution.
However, you can withdraw money from your traditional or Roth IRA before reaching age 59½ without paying the 10% additional tax to pay for qualified higher education expenses for yourself, your spouse, or your children or grandchildren in the year the withdrawal is made. The waiver applies to the 10% penalty only; you will still owe income tax on the distribution unless it's a Roth IRA.
Using your retirement funds to pay for your child or grandchild’s college tuition does come with a couple of drawbacks:
- It takes money out of your retirement fund—money that can’t be put back in (unless you are still working)—so you need to make sure you are well-funded for retirement outside of the IRA.
- IRA distributions can be counted as income on the following year’s financial aid application, which can affect eligibility for need-based financial aid.
To avoid dipping into your own retirement, you may be able to set up a Roth IRA in your child's or grandchild’s name. The catch: Your child (not you) must have earned income from a job during the year for which a contribution is made. You can actually fund their annual contribution, up to the maximum amount, but only if they have earnings.
The IRS doesn’t care where the money comes from as long as it does not exceed the amount your child earned. If your child earns $500 from a summer job, for example, you can make the $500 contribution to the Roth IRA with your own money, and your child can do something else with their earnings.
Here's how to do it: If your child is a minor (younger than 18 or 21 years old, depending on the state in which you live), many banks, brokers, and mutual funds will let you set up a custodial or guardian IRA. As the custodian, you (the adult) control the assets in the custodial IRA until your child reaches the age of majority, at which point the assets are turned over to them.
A Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA) can be set up at a bank or brokerage firm to help pay the qualified education expenses of your child or grandchild. Like 529 plans, Coverdell ESAs allow money to grow tax-deferred and withdrawals are tax-free at the federal level (and in most cases, the state level) when used for qualifying education expenses.
Coverdell ESA benefits apply to higher education expenses, as well as elementary and secondary education expenses. If the money is used for nonqualified expenses, you will owe tax and a 10% penalty on earnings.
Coverdell ESA contributions are not deductible, and contributions must be made before the beneficiary reaches age 18 (unless the child is a special needs beneficiary, as defined by the IRS). While more than one Coverdell ESA can be set up for a single beneficiary, the maximum contribution per beneficiary—not per account—per year is limited to $2,000.
To contribute to a Coverdell ESA, your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) must be less than $110,000 as a single filer or $220,000 as a married couple filing jointly.
Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA) accounts and Uniform Transfers to Minors Act (UTMA) accounts are custodial accounts that allow you to put money and/or assets in a trust for a minor child or grandchild. As the trustee, you manage the account until the child reaches the age of majority (18 to 21 years of age, depending on your state). Once the child reaches that age, they own the account and can use the money in any manner they wish. That means they don't have to use the money for educational expenses.
Although there are no limits on contributions, parents and grandparents can cap individual annual contributions at $16,000 per individual ($32,000 per married couple) to avoid triggering the gift tax. These amounts will increase to $17,000 and $34,000, respectively, in 2023. One thing to be aware of is that custodial accounts count as students' assets (rather than parents'), so large balances can limit eligibility for financial aid. The federal financial-aid formula expects students to contribute 20% of savings, versus a maximum of 5.6% of savings for the parents.
The annual exclusion allows you to give $16,000 in 2022 (increasing to $17,000 in 2023) in cash or other assets each year to as many people as you want. Spouses can combine annual exclusions to give $32,000 (increasing to $34,000 in 2023) to as many individuals as they like—tax-free.
As a parent or grandparent, you can gift a child up to the annual exclusion each year to help pay for college or other higher education costs. Gifts that exceed the annual exclusion count against the lifetime exemption, which is $12.06 million per individual in 2022 (increasing to $12.92 million in 2023).
Concerned about the lifetime exemption? As a grandparent, you can help your grandchild pay for college while limiting your own tax liability by making a payment directly to their higher-education institution.
As Joanna Foster, MBA, CPA explains, “Grandparents can pay the educational expense directly to the provider, and that does not count against the annual exclusion.” So, even if you send $20,000 a year to your grandchild’s college, the amount over $17,000 ($3,000 in this case) would not count against the lifetime exemption.
Why Is It Never Too Early to Start Saving for College?
No end is in sight for rising college costs. A rule of thumb is that college costs increase at about twice the rate of inflation each year. To ensure that you can cover the cost of college for your child or grandchild, it is recommended to start saving as soon as you can.
How Much Might College Cost for a Family Whose Child Is a Toddler in 2022?
According to the College Savings Plans Network, the cost of college for an individual who is a toddler in 2022 is estimated to be $261,277 for an in-state, public college for four years, including tuition, fees, room, and board. For a private college, it is estimated to be $598,063.
What Are Examples of Education Savings Accounts That Will Help People Plan for College Expenses?
A 529 plan is one of the best tax-advantaged ways to save for higher education. They come as either savings or prepaid tuition plans. Coverdell ESAs are another popular way to save. A plan can be set up at a bank or brokerage firm to help pay the qualified education expenses of your child or grandchild. Like 529 plans, Coverdell ESAs allow money to grow tax-deferred and withdrawals are tax-free at the federal level (and in most cases, the state level) when used for qualifying education expenses.
The Bottom Line
Many people approach saving for college the same way they approach retirement: They do nothing because the financial obligations seem insurmountable. Many people say their retirement plan is never to retire (not a real plan, needless to say, unless you die young). Similarly, parents might joke (or assume) that the only way their kids are going to college is if they get a full scholarship.
Aside from the obvious flaw with this plan, it’s a back-seat approach to a situation that really needs a front-seat driver. Even if you can save only a small amount of money in a 529 or Coverdell plan, it’s going to help.
For most families, paying for college is not as simple as writing a check each quarter. Instead, it’s an amalgamation of financial aid, scholarships, grants, and money that the child has earned as well as money that parents and grandparents have contributed to tax-smart college savings vehicles.
College Savings Plan Network. "College Cost Calculator."
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "An Introduction to 529 Plans."
Internal Revenue Service. "IRS Provides Tax Inflation Adjustments for Tax Year 2023."
Internal Revenue Service. "Qualified Education Expenses."
Internal Revenue Service. "Topic No. 313 Qualified Tuition Programs (QTPs)."
Saving for College. "Do You Have to Pay Gift Taxes on 529 Plan Contributions?"
Congress.gov. "H.R.1994 - Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019."
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. "529 Prepaid Tuition Plans."
Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics — Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)."
Congress.gov. "H.R.2617 - Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2023."
Internal Revenue Service. "IRA FAQs - Distributions (Withdrawals)."
Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics - Exceptions to Tax on Early Distributions."
Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 970 (2022), Tax Benefits for Education."
Internal Revenue Service. "Roth IRAs."
Internal Revenue Service. "Topic No. 310 Coverdell Education Savings Account."
Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 970, Tax Benefits for Education," Chapter 6.
Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 4012," Page J-5.
Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute. "Uniform Gifts to Minors Act (UGMA)."
Social Security Administration. "Program Operations Manual System (POMS): SI 01120.205 Uniform Transfers to Minors Act."
Internal Revenue Service. "Frequently Asked Questions on Gift Taxes."
Saving for College. "Does a 529 Plan Affect Financial Aid?"
Federal Student Aid. "2021-2022 Expected Family Contribution (EFC) Formula Guide," Pages 9 and 19.
Internal Revenue Service. "What's New - Estate and Gift Tax."
How to Fund a College Education
Tax-Smart Ways to Help Your Kids or Grandkids Pay for College
The Last States With Prepaid Tuition Plans
Going Back to School: Can I Afford It?
5 Sources of Free Cash for Student Loans
Tips for Creating a 529 Plan
Saving for College: Life Insurance or 529?
Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA): How They Work
Savings Plans for College: 529 Plans vs. Roth IRAs
4 Smart 529 Plan Alternatives to Consider
Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA): Overview, FAQ
What Is the CSS Profile?
A Quick Guide to How FAFSA Works
Cost of Attendance (COA): Meaning, Overview and FAQ
Divorced Parents and Financial Aid
FAFSA Award Letter
Student Loan Advice From a Personal and Family Finance Specialist
How Much Can a Student Win From Scholarships?
Understanding Scholarships: Need and Merit
How to Get Paid to Go to School
Pell Grant: What It Is, How It Works, and How to Get One
How to Find Scholarships
How to Apply for Student Loans
Private vs. Federal College Loans: What's the Difference?
Subsidized vs. Unsubsidized Student Loans: Which Is Best?
The Dangers of Taking out a Direct PLUS Loan
Best International Student Loans
Education Loan: Definition, Types, Debt Strategies
Federal Direct Loan Program: Definition and How It Works
Disadvantages of Federal Direct Loans
Which Companies Had the Most Student Loan Complaints in 2021?
Student Loan Limits—How Much Can You Get?
current student loan interest rates
How to Calculate Student Loan Interest
Student Loan Interest Rates
How Does Financial Aid Work?
Understanding Your Financial Aid Award Letter
Best Student Loans
Best Student Loans for Bad Credit
Best Student Loans Without a Cosigner
Managing Your Student Loans During College