How a 403(b) Works After Retirement

You’ve contributed to your 403(b) plan faithfully for a number of years. You’re about to retire. Now what? How (or if) you should withdraw that money depends on a number of factors and options available to you.

Key Takeaways

  • You don't have to make withdrawals from a 403(b) when you retire, but at age 72, you must start to take annual required minimum distributions.
  • If you retire before age 55, you may have to pay a penalty on top of income taxes on your withdrawals; if you retire at 55 or older, you will have to pay taxes on any lump sum withdrawals in the year in which you withdraw the funds.
  • Upon retirement, you can annuitize all or part of your 403(b), which will provide you with a guaranteed income stream for life and can provide a designated beneficiary with funds after your death.
  • You can also roll over all or part of your 403(b) into a 401(k) (if you change jobs), or a traditional or Roth IRA, among other accounts, in order to benefit from more varied investment options or better money management during retirement.  

Types of 403(b) Plans

Your 403(b) plan is either a tax-sheltered deferred annuity from an insurance company, a custodial account at a brokerage invested in mutual funds, or an account that allows you to invest in either of these options.

Your contributions were likely made on a pretax basis (like those to a 401(k) plan). Some 403(b) plans offer the option to make what is called a designated Roth contribution with after-tax dollars.

The Basic Rules

First of all, you are not required to take all or, in fact, any funds out of your 403(b) account when you retire. If you leave funds in your 403(b) account, they will continue to accumulate until you withdraw them, annuitize them, or roll them over later.

Retiring Before 55

However, if you do plan to make withdrawals—and you retire before age 55—you will have to pay regular income taxes, plus a 10% penalty on the amount, unless you agree to substantially equal periodic payments for at least five years or until you reach the age of 59½ (whichever is later). The size of those payments will be based on your expected lifespan. This applies to the conventional 403(b) plan; with the Roth version, you don't pay income tax, since the contributions were made with net (post-tax) income; but the penalty probably will still apply.

Retiring at 55 or Older

If you are 55 or older when you retire, you can choose to withdraw some or all of your funds in a lump sum. Paradoxically, however, any amount you withdraw does not qualify as a lump-sum distribution under the 10-year tax option, according to the IRS. This means you cannot spread your tax liability over a decade but must pay all the income taxes due on the amount the year you withdraw the funds. Bear in mind that if the withdrawal is sizable, it could move you into a higher tax bracket.

When You Turn 72

When you turn 72, you have to start withdrawing funds from your account. (Note: The SECURE Act of 2019 pushed back the age at which retirement plan participants need to take required minimum distributions (RMDs), from 70½ to 72. But if you turned 70½ by the end of 2019, then that old threshold still applies.) You must continue to take these RMDs each year. Based on your age and the age of your spouse (if you're married), they gradually increase with the passing years.

Most plan administrators provide for the automatic calculation and distribution of RMDs annually, but basically, they're determined by dividing the prior year-end value of the retirement account by a distribution period from one of the IRS's life expectancy tables. If you fail to take the correct distribution one year, you will be subject to a 50% nondeductible excise tax.

What to Do: The Annuity Option

No matter what type of 403(b) plan you have, you may wish to annuitize some or all of it when you retire. By arranging to receive periodic, fixed payouts, you provide yourself with a guaranteed income stream for life (or some period), no matter how the stock market or the economy performs. Most experts warn against annuitizing the entire balance in your retirement plan—especially if you already receive a defined benefit pension. If you have a pension, it means part of your retirement income is already in annuity form, so to speak; you might want to retain flexibility with your other assets.

Your annuity doesn't have to stop when you die; you can bequeath it to someone else. Depending on elections you make or options you choose (or do not choose), the beneficiary may be subject to a gift tax upon your death. If, however, it’s a joint and survivor annuity, where only you and your spouse have the right to receive payments, the annuity will likely qualify for the unlimited marital deduction, according to the IRS, which would make the funds tax-free.

Most experts discourage annuitizing all of the funds in a 403(b) account to allow an investor to realize higher overall investment returns.

What to Do: The Rollover Option

You may wish to roll over part (or all) of your 403(b) plan into another sort of tax-advantaged account: a 401(k) (at another employer), a traditional IRA, a Roth IRA, a corporate 403(a) annuity-based plan, or a government-sponsored 457 plan. Why do a rollover? To take advantage of more ready access to your funds, different and more varied investment options, or better money management during your retirement years.  

There are rules regarding what you may or may not rollover. In general, you must roll over distribution amounts received within 60 calendar days in order for the amount to be treated as nontaxable. You may not roll over RMDs or any of those “substantially equal periodic payments” if you retired before age 55. You can roll 403(b) funds into a Roth IRA only if the account has the same restrictions that a rollover from a traditional IRA has. For more on rollover options, see IRS Publication 571.

If you are a retired public safety officer (police officer, fire firefighter, chaplain, rescue/ambulance crew member), you have an extra perk. You can withdraw up to $3,000 from your 403(b) plan and use it to pay for accident, health, or long-term care insurance. If it goes directly to pay the premiums, that withdrawal will not be included in your taxable income. IRS Publication 575 offers more details.

The Bottom Line

In terms of treating the hard-earned contents of your 403(b) plan, the majority of 403(b) plan owners may find a combination of some sort of annuity and investment portfolio is best. This provides a steady income stream as well as the ability to achieve some capital appreciation.

To begin any sort of withdrawal or transfer process, you simply contact your plan sponsor and indicate how much you wish to withdraw. There will be paperwork. Often, the sponsor will withhold automatically a portion of that amount for taxes (typically 20%), so be sure to account for that when making your request or indicate you do not want the taxes withheld.

Article Sources
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  1. Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Plans FAQs Regarding 403(b) Tax-Sheltered Annuity Plans."

  2. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 575: Pension and Annuity Income," Pages 33-37.

  3. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 575: Pension and Annuity Income," Pages 20-23.

  4. Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Plan and IRA Required Minimum Distributions FAQs."

  5. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 571: Tax-Sheltered Annuity Plans (403(b) Plans)," Page 14.

  6. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 571: Tax-Sheltered Annuity Plans (403(b) Plans)," Page 16.

  7. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 571: Tax-Sheltered Annuity Plans (403(b) Plans)," Pages 14-15.

  8. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 571: Tax-Sheltered Annuity Plans (403(b) Plans)," Page 13.

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