For Best Buy Co, Inc. (BBY), China was far from its best experience.
The Minnesota-based company, best known for its big-box retail stores that sell consumer electronics products, withdrew from the Chinese market in 2014 by selling off the majority stake in its local partner, Five Star Appliance Co, to a Chinese real estate company. In a statement at that time, Best Buy's CEO Hubert Joly said the sale would allow the company to "focus even more on our North American business." While the company had already shut down its branded stores in China in 2011, it continues to sell its privately labeled products there.
- After studying China's growing middle class, Best Buy entered the Chinese market in 2006 by buying a majority stake in Jiangsu Five Star Appliance, a local retailer.
- Best Buy exited China in 2011, with market failure attributed to the negative impacts of counterfeit markets, pricing, and its big-box retailer format.
Best Buy in Asia: Experiments That Failed
With its growing middle class and proximity to electronics manufacturers, China represented a huge growth opportunity for Best Buy. After studying the market for three years, Best Buy entered the Chinese market by buying a majority stake in Jiangsu Five Star Appliance – a local retailer – in 2006. It started operations with nine branded stores; the stores mimicked their American counterparts in their layout, organization, and selling tactics. This meant that they were stocked with knowledgeable customer service representatives who guided customers through a product mix that consisted of American product staples, such as espresso machines and home entertainment systems.
But the expected flood of customers failed to materialize. Instead, after struggling for six years, the company had a meager 1.8% market share. Best Buy closed down all six branded stores in 2011. The firm had already bought out Five Star Appliance in 2008 to propel its growth in the Chinese market. Then-CEO Brian Dunn said the store would focus on mobile sections of its Five Star chain. However, as subsequent events have shown, that experiment failed as well.
What Went Wrong?
The company's problems in China stemmed from three main issues: piracy, cost-conscious customers, and the unpopular big-box retailer format.
China’s extensive manufacturing infrastructure made it easier for competitors to make counterfeit Best Buy products and sell them at a lower cost than the store. As China is well known for copying American products, Best Buy competitors based in China were easily able to take advantage of the now proximate products to make cheaper or otherwise more desired versions of electronics.
The Chinese customer also turned out to very price-sensitive, and Best Buy's products were more expensive than that of its competitors. Research has shown that Chinese middle-class customers are willing to pay premium prices for well-known brands. As an example, the country surpassed the United States to become the biggest market for Apple's iPhones, a product with premium pricing.
But brand misperceptions can negatively affect sales, as well. Best Buy's target audience was also middle class, but the company failed to provide adequate explanations for the premium prices of its products with that audience.
Big-Box Retailer Format
However, it was Best Buy's failure to work in the local retail format that negatively affected the company's prospects on multiple levels. The firm's bloated cost structure contributed to its expenses and was eventually reflected in product pricing. For example, the firm chose to own and manage operations for entire showrooms instead of renting out space to individual manufacturers like most Chinese retailers.
The latter strategy transfers costs, such as store employee expenses and inventory management, onto manufacturers. Best Buy also replicated its store warranty model in China, where customers are more familiar with manufacturer warranties for products. The problem was that warranties cost extra, which further inflated product prices.
After changing the company's sales model to suit local conditions, then-Asia President David Deno said the retailer's moves in China were "stupid and arrogant." According to Kal Patel, Deno's successor, the store's intentions in replicating its U.S. model was to "change the industry" in China. "What we learned, very crucially, is that in China you cannot make revolutionary change. You have to work at the pace of the Chinese consumer," he added later.
The Bottom Line
Best Buy is not the first Western retailer to exit China--for example, Home Depot Inc. (HD) also quit the Asian market in 2012.
At the time of its exit, Best Buy ran 184 stores in China under the Five Star brand. However, Five Star's geographical reach is limited: a majority of its stores are situated in the eastern Jiangsu province. That restricted reach reflected in its position in retailer standings. In 2013, Five Star was the 18th largest retailer in the country. Meanwhile, competitors Gome and Suning Commerce have stores spread across China and are aggressively opening new locations.
Ultimately, the combination of intense competition from eCommerce stores, such as JD.com and Tmall, and slow growth prospects for the Chinese economy spelled the death knell for Best Buy's China operations. Whether Best Buy returns to Chinese shores after the economy improves remains to be seen.