A Roth individual retirement account (IRA) can be an excellent way to stash away money for your retirement years. Like its cousin, the traditional IRA, this type of retirement account allows your investments to grow tax free. It also lets you take tax-free withdrawals of your contributions (but not earnings) at any time.
Under certain conditions, Roth IRAs also allow tax-free withdrawals of earnings, which are taxable in a traditional IRA. Those conditions include reaching age 59½, being disabled, or using the funds as first-time homebuyers.
Of course, as with other tax-advantaged retirement plans, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has specific rules regarding Roth IRAs. These rules cover contribution limits, income limits, and how you can withdraw your money.
- Only earned income can be contributed to a Roth individual retirement account (IRA).
- Most people can contribute up to $6,000 to a Roth IRA in 2021 and 2022. If you are age 50 or older, the limit is $7,000.
- There are also contribution limits based on your household income and filing status. If your earned income is too high, you cannot contribute at all.
- You can withdraw contributions tax free at any time from a Roth IRA.
- Although earnings from a Roth IRA can be withdrawn, that may trigger taxes and penalties depending on your age and the age of the account.
Roth IRA Eligibility
The primary requirement for contributing to a Roth IRA is having earned income. Eligible income comes in two ways:
- You can work for someone else who pays you. That includes commissions, tips, bonuses, and taxable fringe benefits.
- You run your own business or farm, or there are some other types of income that are treated as earned income for purposes of Roth IRA contributions. They include untaxed combat pay, military differential pay, and taxed alimony.
Any type of investment income from securities, rental property, or other assets counts as unearned income. So it can’t be contributed to a Roth IRA. Other common types of income that don’t count include:
- Alimony (nontaxable)
- Child support
- Social Security retirement benefits
- Unemployment benefits
- Wages earned by penal institution inmates
There is no age threshold or limit for making Roth IRA contributions. For example, a teenager with a summer job can establish and fund a Roth IRA. (It might have to be a custodial account if they’re underage.) On the opposite end of the spectrum, an employed person in their 70s can continue to contribute to a Roth IRA.
People of all ages can also contribute to traditional IRAs. In the past, participants in a traditional IRA could not make contributions after age 70½. But with the December 2019 passage of the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act, there is no longer an age cutoff on traditional IRA contributions.
Also, the fact that you participate in a qualified retirement plan has no bearing on your eligibility to make Roth IRA contributions. So if you have the money and meet the income limitations, you can contribute to a 401(k) plan at work and then contribute to your own Roth IRA.
Roth IRA Income Limits
Eligibility to contribute to a Roth IRA also depends on your overall income. The IRS sets income limits that restrict high earners. The limits are based on your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) and tax-filing status. MAGI is calculated by taking the adjusted gross income (AGI) from your tax return and adding back deductions for things like student loan interest, self-employment taxes, and higher education expenses.
In 2021, you can contribute the full amount if you are single and your MAGI is less than $125,000 (or $198,000 if you are married and filing jointly). If you make more than that, the maximum contribution decreases as your MAGI goes up. If your MAGI is higher than $140,000 (or $208,000 for married couples filing together), you cannot contribute at all.
These limits increase in most years. In 2022, you will be able to make full Roth IRA contributions as long as you make less than $129,000 and partial contributions up to the maximum MAGI of $144,000. For married couples filing together, the limits will be $204,000 and $214,000, respectively.
Most people will qualify for the maximum contribution of $6,000, or $7,000 for those ages 50 and older. If your MAGI is in the Roth IRA phaseout range, you can make a partial contribution. You can’t contribute at all if your MAGI exceeds the limits.
The IRS generally announces the amounts and limits for IRA contributions and eligibility for the next tax year around the fourth quarter (Q4) of the previous tax year, so amounts for 2023 should become available around Q4 2022.
|Roth IRA Income and Contribution Limits|
|Filing Status||2021 MAGI||2022 MAGI||Contribution Limit|
|Married filing jointly (or qualifying widow(er))|
|Less than $198,000||Less than $204,000||$6,000 ($7,000 if age 50 or older)|
|$198,000 to $207,999||$204,000 to $213,999||Begin to phase out|
|$208,000 or more||$214,000 or more||Ineligible for direct Roth IRA|
|Married filing separately (and you lived with your spouse at any time during the last year)|
|Less than $10,000||Less than $10,000||Begin to phase out|
|$10,000 or more||$10,000 or more||Ineligible for direct Roth IRA|
|Single, head of household, or married filing separately (and you didn’t live with your spouse at any time during the last year)|
|Less than $125,000||Less than $129,000||$6,000 ($7,000 if age 50 or older)|
|$125,000 to $139,999||$129,000 to $143,999||Begin to phase out|
|$140,000 or more||$144,000 or more||Ineligible for direct Roth IRA|
Married filing separately and head of household filers can use the limits for single people if they have not lived with their spouse in the past year.
You may be able to get around income limits by converting a traditional IRA into a Roth IRA, which is called a backdoor Roth IRA.
Roth IRA Contribution Limits
Anyone of any age can contribute to a Roth IRA, but the annual contribution cannot exceed their earned income. Let’s say that Henry and Henrietta, a married couple filing jointly, have a combined MAGI of $175,000. Both earn $87,500 a year, and both have Roth IRAs. In 2021, they can each contribute the maximum amount of $6,000 to their accounts, for a total of $12,000.
Couples with highly disparate incomes might be tempted to add the higher-earning spouse’s name to a Roth account to increase the amount that they can contribute. Unfortunately, IRS rules prevent you from maintaining joint Roth IRAs—that’s why the word “individual” is in the account name. However, you may accomplish your goal of contributing larger sums if your spouse establishes their own IRA, whether they work or not.
How can this happen? To illustrate, let’s go back to our hypothetical couple. Let’s say that Henrietta is the primary breadwinner, pulling in $170,000 a year, while Henry runs the house, earning $5,000 annually. Henrietta can contribute to both her own IRA and Henry’s, up to the $12,000 maximum. In this case, they each have their own IRAs, but one spouse funds both of them.
A couple must file a joint tax return for the spousal IRA to work, and the contributing partner must have enough earned income to cover both contributions.
Timing Your Roth IRA Contributions
Although you can own separate traditional and Roth IRAs, the dollar limit on annual contributions applies collectively to all of them. If an individual under age 50 deposits $2,500 in one IRA for tax year 2021, then that individual can only contribute $3,500 to another IRA in that tax year.
Contributions to a Roth IRA can be made up until tax filing day of the following year. Thus, contributions to a Roth IRA for 2021 can be made through the deadline on April 18, 2022, for filing income tax returns. Obtaining an extension of time to file a tax return does not give you more time to make an annual contribution.
If you’re an early-bird filer and you received a tax refund, you can apply some or all of it to your contribution. You must instruct your Roth IRA trustee or custodian that you want the refund used in this way.
Conversion to a Roth IRA from a taxable retirement account, such as a 401(k) plan or a traditional IRA, has no impact on the contribution limit. However, making a conversion adds to MAGI and may trigger or increase a phaseout of your Roth IRA contribution amount. Also, rollovers from one Roth IRA to another are not taken into account for purposes of making annual contributions.
Tax Breaks for Roth IRA Contributions
The incentive for contributing to a Roth IRA is to build savings for the future—not to obtain a current tax deduction. Contributions to Roth IRAs are not deductible for the year when you make them—they consist of after-tax money. That is why you don’t pay taxes on the funds when you withdraw them—your tax bill has been paid already.
However, you may be eligible for a tax credit of 10% to 50% on the amount contributed to a Roth IRA. Low- and moderate-income taxpayers may qualify for this tax break, called the Saver’s Credit. This retirement savings credit is up to $1,000, depending on your filing status, AGI, and Roth IRA contribution.
Here are the limits to qualify for the Saver’s Credit for the 2021 (and 2022) tax year:
- Taxpayers who are married and filing jointly must have incomes below $66,000 ($68,000)
- All head of household filers must have incomes below $49,500 ($51,000)
- Single taxpayers must have incomes below $33,000 ($34,000)
The amount of credit that you get depends on your income. For example, if you are a head of household whose AGI in the 2021 tax year shows income of $29,625, then contributing $2,000 or more to a Roth IRA generates a $1,000 tax credit, which is the maximum 50% credit. The IRS provides a detailed chart of the Saver’s Credit.
The tax credit percentage is calculated using IRS Form 8880.
Roth IRA Withdrawal Rules
Unlike traditional IRAs, there are no required minimum distributions (RMDs) for Roth IRAs. You can take out your Roth IRA contributions at any time, for any reason, without owing any taxes or penalties.
Withdrawals on earnings work differently. In general, you can withdraw earnings without penalties or taxes as long as you are age 59½ or older and have owned the account for at least five years. This restriction is known as the five-year rule.
Your withdrawals may be subject to taxes and a 10% penalty, depending on your age and whether you meet the requirements of the five-year rule.
If you meet the five-year rule:
- Younger than 59½: Earnings are subject to taxes and penalties. You may be able to avoid taxes and penalties if you use the money for a first-time home purchase or have a permanent disability. If you pass away, your beneficiary may be able to avoid taxes on the distribution.
- 59½ or older: No taxes or penalties.
If you don’t meet the five-year rule:
- Younger than 59½: Earnings are subject to taxes and penalties. You may be able to avoid the penalty (but not the taxes) if you use the money for specific purposes. They include first-time home purchases, qualified education expenses, unreimbursed medical expenses, and permanent disabilities. If you pass away, your beneficiary may be able to avoid penalties on the distribution.
- 59½ or older: Earnings are subject to taxes but not penalties.
Special Changes in 2020
In 2020, the coronavirus stimulus bill (called the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act) allowed those affected by the coronavirus pandemic a hardship distribution of up to $100,000 without the 10% early distribution penalty that those younger than 59½ normally owe.
Account owners also either have three years to pay the tax owed on withdrawals, instead of owing it in the current year, or can repay the withdrawal and avoid owing any tax—even if the amount exceeds the annual contribution limit for that type of retirement account.
Changes in Roth IRA Rules
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 made some changes to the rules governing Roth IRAs. Previously, if you converted another tax-advantaged account (Simplified Employee Pension (SEP) IRA, Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE) IRA, traditional IRA, 401(k) plan, or 403(b) plan) to a Roth IRA and then changed your mind, you could undo it in the form of a recharacterization.
No longer. If the conversion occurred after Oct. 15, 2018, it cannot be recharacterized back into a traditional IRA or back into its original form.
Record Keeping for Roth IRA Contributions
You do not have to report your Roth IRA contribution on your federal income tax return. However, it is highly advisable for you to keep track of it, along with your other tax records for each year. Doing so will help you demonstrate that you’ve met the five-year holding period for taking tax-free distributions of earnings from the account.
Each year that you make a Roth IRA contribution, the custodian or trustee will send you Form 5498, IRA Contribution Information. Box 10 of this form lists your Roth IRA contribution.
What are the rules for putting money in a Roth individual retirement account (IRA)?
Most people who earn income will qualify for the maximum contribution of $6,000 in 2022, or $7,000 for those ages 50 and older. If your income falls within the Roth individual retirement account (IRA) phaseout range, you can make a partial contribution. You can’t contribute at all if your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) exceeds the limits.
Can you contribute to a Roth IRA at any time?
Yes, you can open a Roth IRA at any age, as long as you have earned income (you can’t contribute more than your earned income). There are also no required minimum distributions (RMDs), so you can leave your Roth IRA to your heirs if you don’t need the money.
What is the five-year rule for Roth IRAs?
The Roth IRA five-year rule states that you cannot withdraw earnings tax free until at least five years since you first contributed to a Roth IRA. This rule applies to everyone who contributes to a Roth IRA, whether they’re 59½ or 105 years old.
The Bottom Line
While not tax deductible, contributions to a Roth IRA give you the opportunity to create a tax-free savings account. You can use this account in retirement or leave it as an inheritance for your heirs. Roth IRAs offer many of the advantages of regular IRAs, but with more flexibility. They work well for people who are more likely to need tax relief later rather than sooner. Opening one is easy, and there are many excellent Roth IRA providers that handle these accounts.
Internal Revenue Service. “Publication 590-B (2020), Distributions from Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs).”
myRA, U.S. Department of the Treasury. “Summary of Key Roth IRA Features.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Retirement Topics — IRA Contribution Limits.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Amount of Roth IRA Contributions That You Can Make for 2022.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Roth IRAs.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Publication 590-A: Contributions to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs).”
Internal Revenue Service. “Amount of Roth IRA Contributions That You Can Make for 2021.”
Internal Revenue Service. “IRA FAQs.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Traditional and Roth IRAs.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Rollovers of Retirement Plan and IRA Distributions.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Retirement Savings Contributions Credit (Saver’s Credit).”
Internal Revenue Service. “Retirement Plan and IRA Required Minimum Distributions FAQs.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Coronavirus Relief for Retirement Plans and IRAs.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Tax Time Guide: IRS Reminds Taxpayers of Recent Changes to Retirement Plans.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Publication 5307: Tax Reform Basics for Individuals and Families,” Page 9 (Page 11 of PDF).
Internal Revenue Service. “Topic No. 451 Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs).”
The Basics of Roth IRA
Roth IRA vs. Traditional IRA: What's the Difference?
401(k) vs. Roth IRA: What’s the Difference?
Roth IRA or 457 Retirement Plan?
Roth TSP vs. Roth IRA: How Do They Compare?
Why Roth IRAs Make Sense for Millennials
What Is a Self-Directed IRA (SDIRA)?
Are You Too Old To Open a Roth IRA?
When Is It Better to Forgo a Roth Account?
Calculating Roth IRA: 2021 and 2022 Contribution Limits
Roth and Traditional IRA Contribution Limits for 2021 and 2022
Roth IRA Contribution Rules: A Comprehensive Guide
How Roth IRA Taxes Work
Roth IRA Conversion Rules
Can I Contribute to an IRA If I’m Married Filing Separately?
Can Teenagers Invest in Roth IRAs?
Can You Make Roth IRA Contributions With No Job?
How to Calculate (and Fix) Excess IRA Contributions
How Much Tax Do You Pay on a Roth IRA Conversion?
How to Open a Roth IRA
The Benefits of Starting an IRA for Your Child
Can You Open a Roth IRA for Someone Else?
What Is a Spousal Roth IRA?
Making Spousal IRA Contributions
How To Convert to a Roth IRA
Funding a Roth IRA
Can You Fund a Roth IRA After Filing Your Taxes?
This Is How Much You Can Contribute to Your IRA
Best Investments for Your Roth IRA
Maximize Your Traditional or Roth IRA
How Does a Roth IRA Work, and How Does It Grow Over Time?
One Day, Your Roth IRA Gains Will Equal the Annual Contribution
How to Find the Best Roth IRA Rates
Roth IRA Certificates of Deposit
What Roth IRA Fees Do I Pay?
Should You Reinvest Your Dividends?
Roth IRA Withdrawal Rules
The Pros and Cons of an Early Withdrawal from Your Roth IRA
Early Withdrawal Penalties for Traditional and Roth IRAs: What Are the Costs?
9 Penalty-Free IRA Withdrawals
Worth the Wait: The Roth IRA 5-Year Rule
How To Use Your Roth IRA as an Emergency Fund
When Can You Use Your IRA to Buy a House?
Understanding Non-Qualified Roth IRA Distributions
Will Roth IRA Withdrawals Be Taxed in the Future?
How Can You Borrow from a Roth IRA?
How to Invest in a Backdoor Roth IRA
Should You Open the Backdoor Roth IRA?
Can IRAs Reduce Your Taxable Income?
Roth IRA Beneficiary Rules
How to Use a Roth IRA to Avoid Paying Estate Taxes
Avoid These 4 Roth IRA Mistakes in Estate Planning
Inheriting an IRA: Tax Rules You Should Know
11 Mistakes to Avoid with Your Roth IRA
What to Do if You Contribute Too Much to Your Roth IRA
How a Roth IRA Works After You Retire
Roth IRA Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)
Six Surprising Facts About Retirement