Most people think of Social Security benefits as a monthly payment that you start getting in retirement and receive for the rest of your life. In fact, Social Security is an umbrella term for several federal benefits programs. One of the largest government programs anywhere in the world, Social Security is expected to have paid out more than $1 trillion to about 65 million Americans in 2020.
There are three key groups of people who receive Social Security benefits: retired workers, survivors of retirees, and people with disabilities and their families. How long does Social Security last? It depends on the type of benefit.
- Social Security retirement benefits start as early as age 62, but the benefits are permanently reduced unless you wait until your full retirement age. Payments are for life.
- Social Security spousal benefits pay about half of what your spouse gets if that’s more than you would get on your own. Payments are for life.
- Social Security survivor benefits go to certain family members of deceased workers. The benefit duration varies.
- Social Security disability benefits go to workers who qualify for Social Security before becoming disabled and to their families. The benefit duration varies.
Social Security Retirement Benefits
This is the most familiar Social Security plan, with roots that go back to 1935 and the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The retirement benefits are paid out of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund. There are a number of subcategories.
You are eligible for benefits if you are a retired worker who contributed to Social Security during your working years. In other words, you’re considered “insured” or “qualified.” The precise periods needed to qualify are spelled out on the Social Security Administration (SSA) website.
You must be “insured” under the Social Security program before you or your family can receive retirement, survivor, or disability benefits.
You can claim Social Security retirement benefits as early as age 62, but your benefits will be permanently reduced by up to 30%. You can collect the full benefit if you wait until full retirement age, which is age 66 if you were born in the 1943–1954 years. The age increases annually by two months from 1955 to 1959 until it reaches 67 for those born in 1960 and later. Once you start receiving benefits, they continue for your lifetime.
Social Security Spousal Benefits
The spouse of a retired worker can receive up to half of their spouse’s benefits. This does not reduce the benefits that the spouse receives. This benefit is generally for spouses who do not have a sufficient work history to be otherwise eligible for benefits or whose work history entitles them to a lower benefit than they would receive from the spousal benefit.
To get Social Security spousal benefits, you must be one of the following:
- At least 62 years old
- Any age if you are taking care of your spouse’s child who is also receiving benefits
- A divorced spouse who is at least age 62, whose marriage lasted at least 10 years, and who remains unmarried
Depending on the date of birth, full spousal benefits kick in at the same age as a worker’s full retirement benefits. You can start taking benefits as early as age 62, but if you do so, then the benefit will be permanently reduced.
The spousal benefit continues until one spouse dies. The survivor then may be eligible for survivor benefits.
Social Security Benefits for Children
A minor child or an adult child with a disability may be eligible for Social Security benefits if the parent receives retirement or disability benefits. The child must be one of the following:
- Under the age of 18
- A high school student up to age 19
- An unmarried adult who became disabled before the age of 22
Family income limits may also apply. Dependent child benefits begin when a retired worker's benefits start. They end when the child turns 18 (or 19, if a high school student). The disabled person may then qualify for continuing benefits as an adult who is unable to work.
Social Security Survivor Benefits
Survivor benefits go to family members of a deceased worker if they meet various conditions.
Social Security Survivor Benefits for Spouses
Surviving spouses can receive benefits based on the benefit amount that the deceased was receiving from Social Security at the time of death.
- A surviving spouse can get reduced benefits as early as age 60. Full benefits are available at full retirement age. Benefits are for life.
- A surviving spouse who has a disability can collect benefits as early as age 50. The benefit begins upon the death of the retiree and continues until the surviving spouse is age 65. At that point, they are eligible for the aged benefit.
- Surviving spouses can get benefits at any age if they take care of their spouse’s child who is under age 16 or disabled and receives Social Security benefits.
- Surviving divorced spouses who are age 60 or older can get survivor benefits if the marriage lasted at least 10 years. Divorced spouses don’t have to meet the length-of-marriage rule if they take care of the former spouse’s child who is younger than age 16 or disabled.
The number of widows and widowers receiving monthly Social Security benefits based on their deceased spouse’s earnings record
Social Security Survivor Benefits for Children
A child of a deceased beneficiary may qualify for continuing benefits for life if the person is disabled, or until they reach age 18 (or 19 if attending high school).
Social Security Survivor Benefits for Parents
A surviving parent who was dependent on a Social Security recipient who has died may be eligible to receive benefits at age 62 or older. This benefit is for life.
Social Security Disability Benefits
The final category of Social Security benefits applies if you suffer an injury or illness that leaves you unable to work. These benefits are paid from the Disability Insurance Trust Fund.
A person qualifies for disability benefits after working long enough to be eligible for Social Security before becoming disabled. You must meet certain criteria defined by the SSA, including “severe disability”—a disability that has lasted or is expected to last at least one year or result in death, with the person deemed unable to perform any work. The benefit begins six full months after the onset of the disability. This benefit is for life unless the SSA determines that you no longer qualify.
Social Security Disability Spousal Benefits
The spouse of a disabled worker may qualify for benefits. To qualify, the spouse must be:
- At least 62 years old (also applies to divorced spouses if the marriage lasted at least 10 years)
- Any age and care for the spouse’s child who is under age 16 or disabled
The spousal benefits begin when the disabled worker’s benefits start. It ends at the death of the disabled worker or the spouse, or when the SSA determines that the person no longer qualifies.
Social Security Benefits for Child of Disabled Parent
The child of a disabled worker can qualify for benefits if they meet the conditions for coverage as a retired worker’s child. To qualify, the child must be:
- Unmarried and younger than 18, or 19 if still in high school
- Unmarried and age 18 or older if the child has a disability that began before age 22