Financial Analyst vs. Actuary: An Overview
The financial sector is full of careers for analytical individuals; perhaps no two jobs exemplify this more than the financial analyst and the actuary. These are good careers for those who love math, statistics, charts, and models, and those who can dive into a subject and pick apart its complexities.
Actuaries are the unsung heroes of the insurance industry, which makes them unsung heroes of the medical industry, mortgage industry, car industry, and every other industry where insurance coverage plays a prominent role. They are responsible for compiling and analyzing statistics about risks and the individuals who are exposed to risk.
There are actuaries who work in other industries. Some large financial institutions, particularly lenders, employ actuaries to assess risks on loan products. Actuaries can be used to measure the potential for loss in an investment portfolio, which directly crosses over into the realm of financial analysis.
Financial analysts serve as experts for businesses and investors on a wide variety of subjects, such as economics, markets, investments, regulations, taxes, or corporate governance. The fundamental role of a financial analyst is to provide accurate information to others and to make recommendations based on that information. Corporations, private companies, public agencies, defense contractors, and nonprofits all employ financial analysts.
- Being a financial analyst or actuary is a good career for those who love math, statistics, charts, and models, and those who can dive into a subject and pick apart its complexities.
- Most actuaries work fewer than 45 hours a week after receiving their certifications.
- The average financial analyst works between 40 and 50 hours per week, receives more than 20 days of paid vacation every year, and is not forced to work holidays.
Both careers are here to stay. Financial analysts are expected to thrive in a business environment because regulations are becoming more onerous and financial markets are growing more complex. There is almost always a shortage of actuaries in the U.S., and both careers can expect average or above-average job growth until 2028.
Since there are many different kinds of financial analysts (buy-side, sell-side, institutional, industry-specific, corporate, private, and so on), there is no defined career path or set of necessary skills to become one. Every financial analyst should be gifted at analytical problem-solving and have the ability to communicate effectively to non-experts, but there are relatively few additional hard-and-fast requirements.
Common areas of study for financial analysts include finance, economics, statistics, accounting, mathematics, or other business-related fields. Many financial analysts eventually pursue other professional designations, such as the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) or Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) designations. Some financial analysts have advanced degrees, such as an MBA.
There are comparatively few actuaries in the United States. Actuarial work—which involves long hours of dedicated analysis and statistical modeling—appeals to a relatively small subset of the population. Another key reason, however, is that actuaries are forced to spend several years passing a series of rigorous certification exams before most companies will consider them.
Aspiring actuaries are encouraged to pursue an undergraduate degree in a field such as mathematics, statistics, or actuarial science. Other strong analytic and mathematical fields include economics, physics, and accounting.
After receiving a degree, actuaries become licensed through one of two professional associations: the Society of Actuaries (SOA) or the smaller Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS). There is no federal law requiring an actuary to be licensed, but very few employers consider hiring applicants without these credentials. Most actuaries spend between four and seven years in pursuit of full licensure.
Without actuaries, insurance providers would have no idea how to price their products, how many individuals or businesses to insure, or what kinds of liabilities should be covered.
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the median salary for an actuary in the U.S. is $108,350 as of 2019, though aspirants are unlikely to earn near the median salary unless they are credentialed by the CAS or SOA. The BLS expected an additional 20 percent increase in actuarial positions over the subsequent decade, much faster than the average for all occupations.
There are fewer than 30,000 actuaries in the U.S. There aren't many licensed actuaries to go around, so businesses really have to compete to hire good people.
As of 2018, the median salary for financial analysts is $85,660. The BLS has estimated that financial analyst positions will increase by 6 percent between 2018 and 2028, or as fast as average overall job growth.
The average financial analyst works between 40 and 50 hours per week, receives more than 20 days of paid vacation every year, and is not forced to work holidays. Unlike many of their compatriots on Wall Street, financial analysts are not generally expected to dedicate their entire lives to their work.
Actuaries spend even less time at the office than financial analysts do. Most actuaries work fewer than 45 hours a week after receiving their certifications. Actuaries who are still pursuing their credentials can expect to spend an additional 15 to 30 hours a week studying for their exams.
Some actuaries in the investment banking world may work more than 50 hours a week and may also be expected to travel often to meet with clients. Financial analysts who work for investment banks often do so as well.
Financial analysts don't receive the same kinds of accolades about job desirability, but this career is a better fit for people who like the Wall Street environment, who like working in support of multiple teams, and who may eventually want to move into another financial career, such as investment banking or private equity.