Social Security is a federal benefits program in the United States that was founded in 1935. While the program also includes disability income, it is most commonly associated with monthly retirement benefits paid out until death.
The Social Security system is funded through payroll taxes. The Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) mandates a 12.4% levy on the first $147,000 (in 2022) of earned income each year. The employer pays 6.2%, and the employee pays 6.2%, while the self-employed pay 12.4%.
- Payroll taxes fund the Social Security system, with employers and employees each paying 6.2% in taxes on the first $147,000 (in 2022) of income annually.
- Individuals are eligible for Social Security benefits if they have earned at least 40 credits ($1,510 per credit) over 10 years.
- A worker's benefit is calculated by averaging the earnings from their 35 highest income-generating years.
- Full (or normal) retirement age is 66 for anyone born between 1943 and 1954 and gradually increases to 67 for those born in 1960 or later.
- It's important to supplement your Social Security benefit with other retirement income from a 401(k), pension, IRA, and/or other savings.
Contrary to popular belief, this money is not put in trust for the individual employees who are paying into the system but is pooled and used to pay existing retirees. The Social Security Trust Fund invests in special issue securities available only to the fund, though in the past it has held U.S. Treasury bonds that are available to the public.
Social Security Credits
Eligibility for Social Security benefits is accrued over time. Prior to 1978, workers were required to earn $50 in a three-month quarter in order to receive one Social Security credit. The achievement of 40 credits, accrued over 10 years of working, provided eligibility.
On Friday, July 9, President Biden fired Social Security Commissioner Andrew Saul and appointed the current deputy commissioner for retirement and disability policy, Kilolo Kijakazi, as acting commissioner. Saul has been criticized for efforts to reduce access to disability benefits, delay providing the information needed to issue stimulus payments, terminate the agency’s telework policy, and clash with employee unions over safety planning in the pandemic.
The Social Security Administration is an independent agency and Saul was appointed until January 2025. But two Supreme Court rulings, one on June 29, 2020, determining that President Trump was free to fire the head of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau—and a second on June 23, 2021, authorizing President Biden to remove the chief of the Federal Housing Agency—have given presidents this authority. Biden also cited a July 8 Justice Dept. memo. Saul and Congressional Republicans vowed to fight this action.
Employers now report earnings once per year instead of quarterly, and credits are accrued based on your earnings, not based on a set time frame, so it is possible to earn all four credits even if you only work a short period each year. For 2022, workers are required to earn $1,510 per credit (up from $1,470 in 2021).
The amount of your Social Security benefit is calculated by averaging the earnings from your 35 highest income-generating years. The maximum monthly Social Security check that you can earn is $3,345 per month in 2022.
You can use one of the calculators at the Social Security website to estimate in advance what your benefit will be. You can apply four months prior to your retirement date.
To help guarantee a smooth transition from work to retirement, apply for your Social Security benefit as early as four months before your intended retirement date.
You can use various strategies to make sure you receive the highest benefit possible. Even if you never contributed to Social Security, you still may be eligible to receive retirement benefits based on your spouse's earning history—even if you are divorced (if your marriage lasted at least 10 years), or your spouse is deceased.
Social Security Eligibility
While past generations reached full eligibility for Social Security at age 65, everyone born after 1937 must adhere to the following eligibility requirements:
|Year of Birth||Full (normal) Retirement Age|
|1937 or earlier||65|
|1938||65 and 2 months|
|1939||65 and 4 months|
|1940||65 and 6 months|
|1941||65 and 8 months|
|1942||65 and 10 months|
|1955||66 and 2 months|
|1956||66 and 4 months|
|1957||66 and 6 months|
|1958||66 and 8 months|
|1959||66 and 10 months|
|1960 and later||67|
Plan for Your Retirement
According to the Social Security Administration (SSA), Social Security was never designed to serve as the sole source of a retiree's income. The SSA notes that "on average, Social Security will replace 40% of your annual pre-retirement income."
The best way to achieve a secure retirement is to take matters into your own hands. This means making sure to take advantage of a 401(k) or similar tax-advantaged retirement plan, if your employer offers one, as well as investing in an IRA or other vehicle. A separate non-retirement investment account or other investments, such as real estate, are also useful.
Another smart reason to save for your retirement: In their 2021 report, the trustees that manage the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund project that the retirement reserves will become depleted in 2034, as the youngest baby boomers begin to collect Social Security.
The trustees forecast the retirement trust fund is drying up in 2034 and the Disability Insurance Trust Fund in 2057. When the reserves for each fund are depleted, the taxes coming in from active workers will be enough to pay about 78% of the benefits to retirees.
The Bottom Line
While Social Security is built as a supplement to retirement income, one thing is certain: Planning for additional ways to fund your retirement is a good idea. If you reach retirement and other sources of income, such as Social Security and defined-contribution plans, are able to provide sufficient income, your personal savings will add to the mix, and you'll have more money than you need.
If you reach retirement and those other sources of income are not enough, you'll also be able to rely on the nest egg you've built.
Internal Revenue Service. "Topic No. 751, Social Security and Medicare Withholding Rates." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. “2022 Social Security Changes.” Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Quarter of Coverage." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Social Security Entitlement Requirements." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Your Retirement Benefit: How It Is Figured," Page 1. Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Normal Retirement Age." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Special Issue Securities: Trust funds and Types of Investments." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Reuters. "Biden Fires Trump-Nominated Social Security Commissioner." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
U.S. Supreme Court. "Collins et al. v. Yellen, Secretary of the Treasury, et al." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
U.S. Supreme Court. "Seila Law LLC v. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
U.S. Department of Justice. "Constitutionality of the Commissioner of Social Security's Tenure Protection." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "How Far in Advance Can I Apply for Social Security Retirement Benefits?" Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Benefits For Your Family." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Understanding the Benefits," Page 1. Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Your Social Security Statement," Page 1. Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.
Social Security Administration. "Summary: Actuarial Status of the Social Security Trust Fund." Accessed Oct. 22, 2021.