Social Security is a federal benefits program in the United States that was founded in 1935. While the program encompasses disability income, veterans' pensions, and public housing, it is most commonly associated with monthly retirement benefits.
The Social Security system is funded through payroll taxes. The Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) mandates a 12.4% levy on the first $132,900, as of 2019, of each individual's earned income each year. The employer pays 6.2% and the employee pays 6.2%. The self-employed pay 12.4%. Contrary to popular belief, this money is not put in trust for the individual employees who are paying into the system, but is used to pay existing retirees. Any excess is invested in U.S. Treasury bonds.
- Payroll taxes fund the Social Security system, with employers and employees each paying 6.2% in taxes on the first $132,900 of income annually.
- Individuals are eligible for Social Security benefits if they have earned at least 40 credits ($1,360 per credit) over 10 years.
- A worker's benefit is calculated by averaging the earnings from their 35 highest income-generating years.
- Full (or normal) retirement age is 66 for anyone born between 1943 and 1954 and gradually increases to 67 for those born in 1960 or afterwards.
- It's important to supplement your Social Security benefit with other retirement income from a 401(k), pension, IRAs, and/or savings.
Social Security Credits
Eligibility for Social Security benefits is accrued over time. Prior to 1978, workers were required to earn $50 in a three-month quarter in order to receive one Social Security credit. The achievement of 40 credits, accrued over 10 years of working, provided eligibility.
Employers now report earnings once per year instead of quarterly and credits are accrued based on your earnings, not based on a set time frame, so it is possible to earn all four possible credits even if you only work a short period each year. As of 2019, workers are required to earn $1,360 per credit.
To help guarantee a smooth transition from work to retirement, apply for your Social Security benefit at least three months before your intended retirement date.
The amount of your Social Security benefit is calculated by averaging the earnings from your 35 highest income-generating years. The maximum monthly Social Security check that you can earn is $2,861 per month in 2019. You can use one of the calculators at the Social Security website to estimate in advance what your benefit will be. To sign up for Social Security benefits, it is recommended that you apply three months prior to your retirement date.
You can use various strategies to make sure you receive the highest benefit possible. Even if you never contributed to Social Security, you still may be eligible to receive retirement benefits based on your spouse's earning history—even if you are divorced (if your marriage lasted at least 10 years) or your spouse is deceased.
Social Security Eligibility
While past generations reached full eligibility for Social Security at age 65, everyone born after 1937 must adhere to the following eligibility requirements:
|Year of Birth||Full (normal) Retirement Age|
|1937 or earlier||65|
|1938||65 and 2 months|
|1939||65 and 4 months|
|1940||65 and 6 months|
|1941||65 and 8 months|
|1942||65 and 10 months|
|1955||66 and 2 months|
|1956||66 and 4 months|
|1957||66 and 6 months|
|1958||66 and 8 months|
|1959||66 and 10 months|
|1960 and later||67|
Plan for Your Retirement
According to the Social Security Administration, Social Security was never designed to serve as the sole source of a retiree's income. The SSA notes that "Social Security replaces about 40% of an average wage earner's income after retiring, and most financial advisors say retirees will need about 70% to 80% of their work income to live comfortably in retirement."
The best way to achieve a secure retirement is to take matters into your own hands. This means making sure to take advantage of a 401(k) or similar tax-advantaged retirement plan, if your employer offers one, as well as investing in an IRA or other vehicle. A separate non-retirement investment account or other investments, such as real estate, are also useful.
Another smart reason to save for your retirement: Without some kind of fix, the reserves of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) trust fund that pays out Social Security benefits will be depleted in 2034, according to the 2019 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the OASI and Federal Disability Insurance (DI) trust funds, the two funds that make up Social Security (the DI fund won't be depleted until 2052). After that, if changes aren't made to increase funding, current estimates are that OASI could pay out about 77% of benefits.
The Bottom Line
While Social Security is built as a supplement to retirement income, one thing is certain: Planning for additional ways to fund your retirement is a good idea. If you reach retirement and other sources of income, such as Social Security and defined-contribution plans, are able to provide sufficient income, your personal savings will add to the mix and you'll have more money than you need. If you reach retirement and those other sources of income are not enough, you'll also be able to rely on the nest egg you've built. (For related reading, see "How Does My Part-time Job Affect Social Security?")