Pension Plans and Divorce

Divorce can take a substantial emotional toll, but it can also have a lasting impact on your financial status. And there are a lot of factors that you'll have to consider, including child custody (if any) and child support, alimony, what happens with the debts, and how the assets will be split up. Naturally, all of this depends on whether you and your ex have an amicable or bitter separation.

Separating your assets from those of your spouse can be particularly tricky if your pension plan is at stake. A pension earned by one spouse is generally considered a joint asset, which means it's subject to division in divorce. If a marital split is in the works, here's what you can do to shield your pension benefits as much as possible.

Key Takeaways

  • Review your state's laws to determine the best way to protect your pension in a divorce.
  • A Qualified Domestic Relations Order may be necessary to grant your ex-spouse pension benefits.
  • The pension plan may specify the terms governing how the pension is divided.
  • You may be able to propose alternatives rather than giving up your pension.
  • If all else fails, consider consulting a professional, such as a Certified Divorce Financial Analyst.

Review the Laws for Your State

The first step in managing your pension while going through a divorce is knowing what the rules are in your state. While a pension can be divvied up between spouses during divorce, that division isn't automatic. Your soon-to-be-ex would have to make a specific request for a share of whatever you've accumulated before the divorce is finalized.

The spouse would have to file a document known as a Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO) before any financial benefit from a pension or other retirement accounts, such as a 401(k), can be granted. 

In terms of how much either spouse is entitled to, the general rule is to divide pension benefits earned during the course of the marriage right down the middle. While that means your spouse would be able to lay claim to half, they are limited to what was earned during the course of the marriage.

If you were enrolled in a defined-benefit plan for 10 years prior to tying the knot, for example, any contributions you or your employer made on your behalf during that time wouldn't count towards the amount a spouse could seek in a divorce.

Check the Details of Your Pension Plan

Once you're familiar with the rules governing the division of pensions in your state, the next step is to take a closer look at how the plan works. There are two key elements to focus on here. The first is to verify the method by which payments are distributed, and the second is whether the plan offers a survivor's benefit.

With a pension, you normally have a choice between receiving a lump-sum payment or a monthly annuity. If your plan features a single-life payout and you choose the annuity option, the payments stop at your death. If the plan has a joint-life payout, the payments continue for the life of the surviving spouse. 

It's important to understand how the plan works because it affects how you'll divide up the assets as part of the divorce. For example, if you have a single-life payout, your spouse is subject to whatever payment option you chose when you signed up. If your plan offers survivor benefits, the easiest course may be to persuade your spouse to maintain that benefit, rather than seeking a lump-sum distribution. Your ex would have to include those benefits in their gross income but may be able to claim a deduction for estate tax.

Every divorce involves a form of financial settlement.

Propose an Alternative

Consider offering your spouse other assets if you don't want to hand over half of your pension. You may allow your ex to retain ownership of a mortgage-free home that you own together. Or consider buying a life insurance policy equal to your pension benefits naming your ex as the beneficiary. In either case, you offset what your ex would get from the pension with something else of equal value.

You may have an out if your spouse also has a pension or other retirement assets to protect. If both of you have retirement accounts that are relatively similar in size, agreeing to walk away with what you already have can be a less time-consuming way to resolve the issue.

Consult a Professional

It's always a good idea to consult a professional about your options regardless of your situation—that is whether you're about to separate or are in the middle of divorce proceedings. There are individuals in the industry who specialize in the division of assets when spouses split up. These people are called certified divorce financial analysts (CDFAs).

CDFAs are trained mediators who help those going through amicable proceedings or medication. They provide individuals with the expertise they need to manage their assets outside of the legal system. These professionals assist lawyers and individuals with important decisions about the division of assets and how that may affect their financial future.

When you consult a CDFA, they will gather all your financial information, help you set a budget and key objectives, and determine any investment risk you may sustain. They will then review your assets, including your pension plan, advise you how the division of assets will affect your future, and any tax implications you may face.

Certified Divorce Financial Analysts do not provide legal advice or assistance.

The Bottom Line

Getting divorced is stressful in any case and it pays to be smart about how you tackle the various financial issues that are involved. That's especially true when your retirement is on the line. Before signing off on a division of your pension, take time to understand what your rights are and what options you have for working towards a compromise that will satisfy both you and your future ex-spouse.

When in doubt, make sure you consult someone who can help guide you through the proceedings. There are financial professionals, who are called certified divorce financial analysts, who specialize in the division of assets during divorce proceedings.