What You Need to Know About the Russell Rebalance Study

The reconstitution of the Russell Indexes each year in June represents one of the most important short-term drivers of demand for specific U.S. equities.

Advanced trading strategies of market participants from hedge funds to retail investors focus on accurate prediction of membership and subsequent demand shifts. Savvy investors familiar with the process can predict which stocks might move in or out of indexes, though the process is not as simple as identifying the 2,000 largest companies on the market. Analysis of pricing trends among stock styles and sizes can help investors identify potential beneficiaries or laggards as the indexes are reconstituted.

Key Takeaways

  • The Russell Indexes are reconstituted each year to reflect changes in the market capitalization of constituent companies.
  • Investors and traders pay close attention as names are added or dropped from the Russell 1000 and Russell 2000 indexes.
  • Characteristics such as value vs. growth are also considered and reevaluated during this process.

Russell Index Reconstitution

Each year in May and June, the Russell Indexes release an updated list of the constituents for their various indexes, notably the Russell 2000 and the Russell 1000. Many exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and mutual funds are constructed to track these indexes, so official index rebalances force these funds to transact large volumes of stocks that move in or out of the index. This drives major changes in demand for stocks, generating significant volatility.

The Russell US Indexes are designed to reflect the ever-changing U.S. equity market, and the annual reconstitution process is critical to maintaining accurate representation. When the indexes are reconstituted, the break points among large-cap, midcap, and small-cap stocks are redefined to ensure that market changes that occurred in the preceding year are captured. Companies are also evaluated to determine where they lie along the investment styles spectrum from value to growth. As a result, companies will be added to, removed from, or swapped among the Russell 3000, 2000, and 1000.

The Russell US Indexes methodology takes into account market capitalization, home country, exchange listing eligibility, price per share, share availability, trading volume, and company structure.

For the reconstitutions, preliminary lists are first compiled and communicated to the marketplace, with updates provided throughout June. The newly reconstituted indexes then take effect after the market close on the last Friday in June. The rebalance can generate tilt toward larger companies over small, growth companies over value, and tech/healthcare over the other sectors, for instance.

The largest five companies in the Russell US Indexes changed in 2022 — for the first time since 2019’s reconstitution. Apple (AAPL) is again the largest company in the index, followed by Microsoft (MSFT), with Google parent Alphabet (GOOGL), Amazon (AMZN), and Tesla (TSLA) filling out the group. The total market cap of the 10 largest companies has decreased since 2021's reconstitution.

Market Cap Valuation

The Russell 1000 Index represents the top 1,000 listed companies by market capitalization in the United States and is a subset of the Russell 3000. To determine the holdings of the Russell 1000, the company ranks all of the stocks included in the Russell 3000 by market capitalization and identifies the market cap break point of the 1,000th stock ranking. This break point is the primary market capitalization used to determine index eligibility.

The Russell 2000 Index measures the performance of the 2,000 smaller companies that are included in the Russell 3000 Index. The Russell 2000 is widely regarded as a bellwether of the U.S. economy because of its focus on smaller companies that focus on the U.S. market.

Many stocks are swapped between the Russell 1000 and the Russell 2000 at the annual reconstitution; however, variation around the market cap break point is the determining factor. This can provide trading opportunities as index funds and ETFs that track the Russell 1000 add or remove holdings to reflect changes in the index construction and replicate the new index’s portfolio.

Because they are closely followed by mutual fund managers and individual investors, speculation as to which companies will be added or removed from the Russell 1000 and the Russell 2000 can cause a jolt in short-term demand.

The Price of Growth

FTSE Russell also offers a number of index variations derived from the Russell 3000. These variations include the Russell Value and the Russell Growth.

Included in the Russell 3000 Value Index are stocks from the Russell 3000 Index with lower price-to-book ratios and lower expected growth rates. Value stocks trade at generally lower prices relative to fundamentals—i.e., lower price-to-earnings (P/E) ratios—and tend to pay higher dividends, making them attractive to value investors.

The Russell 3000 Growth Index, in contrast, is composed of those companies well-positioned for fast growth. Growth stocks often look expensive, trading at a high P/E ratio, but such valuations actually could be cheap if the company continues to grow rapidly, which will drive up the share price. These fast-growing firms (often startups) do not always pay a dividend, given that management usually opts to reinvest retained earnings in capital projects. For this reason, growth investors choose growth stocks based on the potential for capital gains, not dividend income.

These indexes are also evaluated and reconstituted annually to preserve its mandate of listing value vs. growth stocks.

Special Considerations

Russell index constituency is based on several factors, though market capitalization is the primary determinant. Strong performance among midcap stocks could prevent small-cap stocks from moving into higher indexes in large numbers. Value stocks, for instance, might be more likely in a given year to move into indexes, while growth stocks on the margins more likely would be dropped.

Growth stocks that fall out of the indexes are often particularly vulnerable because these are typically more volatile. Investors can also expect companies that have suffered due to global macroeconomic volatility to be at risk of exclusion. Basic materials and energy companies are particularly at risk, since low raw material prices can wreak havoc on their bottom lines.

What Are the 10 Largest Companies In the Russell US Indexes?

The ten largest companies are Apple, Microsoft, Alphabet, Amazon, Tesla, Berkshire Hathaway, Meta, UnitedHealth Group, Nvidia, and Johnson & Johnson. 

Why Does the Russell Index Reconstitution Matter?

The annual reconstitution matters because of the large number of exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and mutual funds that track the various Russell indexes. Those indexes must shift their holdings to accommodate the changes in the various underlying indexes, after the reconstitution.

What Are the Major Russell Indexes?

The major Russell indexes are: the Russell 3000, which represents the broad US market; the Russell 1000, which represents the largest 1000 of the Russell

3000; and the Russell 2000, which reflects the smaller and mid-sized companies in the Russell 3000.

Article Sources
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  1. FTSE Russell. “Russell Reconstitution.”

  2. FTSE Russell. "Construction and Methodology: Russell U.S. Equity Indices," Pages 14-18.

  3. FTSE Russell. “2022 Russell US Indexes Reconstitution.”

  4. FTSE Russell. "Index Factsheet: Russell 1000 Index," Page 1.

  5. FTSE Russell. "Index Factsheet: Russell 2000 Index," Page 1.

  6. FTSE Russell. "Construction and Methodology: Russell U.S. Equity Indices," Page 11.

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