It's impossible to evaluate the complete impact of public-private partnerships (PPP) on overall economic growth. It is likely that a private-public partnership increases net investment in a specific industry and leads to greater project growth in a specific sector. It is uncertain as to whether those funds would have been more productive elsewhere in the economy. In other words, the impact depends on the opportunity costs involved.
What Is a Public-Private Partnership?
Historically, public-private partnerships have been contractual or memorandum-driven agreements between public offices and private enterprises. The public and private parties share resources such a financing, labor, capital and management. A PPP exists through an agreement where the skills of each sector are shared in delivering a service for the general public.
More broadly speaking, PPPs are the natural extension of mixed economic systems. Governments are increasingly aware of their own inefficiencies, and many run into budgeting or financing problems when executing projects. By contracting with more efficient private providers of goods and services, a public agency can still promote its agenda.
Public-private partnerships sometimes exist as a transitional step between a public service and a privatized service. This concept, called corporatization, purports to ease the adjustment from public-to-private transformations by gradually incorporating market-based decisions.
The number of PPPs has expanded dramatically since the 1970s. While many of these projects have been accepted and praised by the public at large, research by Professor Thomas DiLorenzo (Loyola College, Maryland) and Paul C. Light (Brookings Institution) has shown that many government-funded non-profit PPPs have primarily served as a tool for federal agencies to lobby for additional funding.
Impact of Private-Public Partnerships on Economic Growth
Economic growth is driven by investment and increases in productive output, making it possible for individual workers to command a higher value for their labor and to achieve a higher standard of living. Do PPPs allow resources to be used more efficiently and cause marginal output to increase?
Some analysts contend that by diverting resources (money and labor) from market-driven ends to politically driven ends, PPPs harm growth. Proponents counter that the effective provision of public goods, such as education and roads, helps promote economic growth. In turn, critics of public-private alliances say that public goods could be provided much more effectively by the private sector alone if it weren't for the crowding-out effect of public distortions in the capital markets.
It is likely that there is a net economic loss to the extent that public officials make resource decisions for PPPs. While public officials may be as intelligent, capable and well-meaning as their private-sector management counterparts, the impossibility of social calculation renders political decisions ineffective. Even if the PPP is well-run relative to other government programs, it still diverts resources from purely private market-based decisions that are guided toward their most efficiently productive ends.