Defined-Benefit vs. Defined-Contribution Plan: An Overview
Employer-sponsored retirement plans are divided into two major categories: defined-benefit plans and defined-contribution plans. As the names imply, a defined-benefit plan—also commonly known as a traditional pension plan—provides a specified payment amount in retirement. A defined-contribution plan allows employees and employers (if they choose) to contribute and invest in funds over time to save for retirement.
These key differences determine which party—the employer or employee—bears the investment risks and affects the cost of administration for each plan. Both types of retirement accounts are also known as superannuations.
- Employers fund and guarantee a specific retirement benefit amount for each participant of a defined-benefit pension plan.
- Defined-contribution plans are funded primarily by the employee, as the participant defers a portion of their gross salary. Employers can match the contributions up to a certain amount if they choose.
- A shift to defined-contribution plans has placed the burden of saving and investing for retirement on employees.
- The most popular defined-contribution plan is the 401(k).
- A steady trend has emerged of companies favoring defined-contribution plans over defined-benefit plans.
Defined-benefit plans provide eligible employees guaranteed income for life when they retire. Employers guarantee a specific retirement benefit amount for each participant that is based on factors such as the employee’s salary and years of service.
While they are rare in the private sector, defined-benefit pension plans are still somewhat common in the public sector—in particular, in government jobs.
Employees have little control over the funds until they are received in retirement. The company takes responsibility for the investment and for its distribution to the retired employee. That means the employer bears the risk that the returns on the investment will not cover the defined-benefit amount due to a retired employee.
Because of this risk, defined-benefit plans require complex actuarial projections and insurance for guarantees, making the costs of administration very high. As a result, defined-benefit plans in the private sector are rare and have been largely replaced by defined-contribution plans over the last few decades. The shift to defined-contribution plans has placed the burden of saving and investing for retirement on employees.
Defined-benefit plans are broken down into two payment options: annuity and lump-sum payments. In an annuity payment plan, the payment is spread out and paid monthly until death. A lump-sum payment is the entire value of the plan paid at one time.
Opting to take defined payments that pay out until death is the more popular choice, as you will not need to manage a large amount of money, and you're less susceptible to market interference.
Defined Benefit Pension Plan
Defined-contribution plans are funded primarily by the employee. But many employers make matching contributions to a certain amount.
The most common type of defined-contribution plan is a 401(k). Participants can elect to defer a portion of their gross salary via a pre-tax payroll deduction to the plan, and the company may match the contribution if it chooses, up to a limit it sets.
As the employer has no obligation toward the account’s performance after the funds are deposited, these plans require little work, are low risk to the employer, and cost less to administer. The employee is responsible for making contributions and choosing investments offered by the plan. Contributions are typically invested in select mutual funds, which contain a basket of stocks or securities, and money market funds, but the investment menu can also include annuities and individual stocks.
The investments in a defined-contribution plan grow tax-deferred until funds are withdrawn in retirement. There is a limit to how much employees can contribute each year. For 2021, for example, the most an employee could contribute to a 401(k) in one year is $19,500, or $26,000 if they are 50 or older. For 2022, the maximum amount rose to $20,500, or $27,000 if they're 50 or above.
Those with a define-contribution plan can also contribute to a 403(b). While both the 403(b) and 401(k) are tax-deferred, a 403(b) is much less common as they are restricted to those in non-profit organizations and in government positions. 403(b) plans are often managed by insurance companies and offer fewer investment options when compared to a 401(k). which is often managed by a mutual fund.
Defined-Benefit Plan vs. Defined-Contribution Plan Example
Most private-sector employees are offered and take a defined-contribution plan. They carry less risk for the employer as they are not responsible for managing the account themselves, and offer much more flexibility to the employee.
If John were to contribute to a defined-contribution plan such as the popular 401(k), he would be able to have access to his funds while making his own investment decisions. He could, for example, take an extremely aggressive approach with his investments since he is young and can handle a volatile market. His company offers a 3% match, and he uses it to further invest in his retirement plan.
When John reaches retirement age, he starts making withdrawals from the plan. Over the course of his career, he adjusted the plan to ensure it was relatively stable nearing retirement age.
If John were to take the defined-benefit route, his employer would take his contributions and either hand them to an outside investing firm or manage the contributions themselves. John has no say in what the company invests in, and he has to trust that they will be able to make their payouts from the plan come retirement.
If the company makes a mistake when investing and does not have the amount to pay John when he is ready to receive it, there isn't much John can do. He has saved a lot of time researching investments and making his own investment decisions, but lost the control he would have had with a defined-contribution plan. This lack of control is why most in the private sector prefer a defined-contribution plan.
What Is the Difference Between a 401(k) Plan and a 403(b) Plan?
A 401(k) plan is a defined-contribution plan offered to employees. A 403(b) plan is very similar, but it is limited to certain types of employees such as those that work for non-profits and within the government. A 401(k) generally offers many more investing options when compared to a 403(b).
Why Is a Defined-Contribution Plan More Popular With Employers?
A defined-contribution plan is more popular with employers for a few reasons. They are no longer responsible for managing their employees' contributions which means they do not need to invest time or money into what they can simply put on the shoulders of the employee to do. Employees also like the option of making their own investment decisions.
Can SEP IRAs Be Combined With a Defined-Benefit Plan?
You can combine a SEP IRA with a defined-benefit plan but it depends on if the SEP is a model SEP or a non-model SEP. The type of Sep is determined by The filing of IRS Form 5305, and you would need to confirm which type of SEP you have with your SEP custodian.
It’s all in the nomenclature. Defined-benefit plans define the benefit ahead of time: a monthly payment in retirement, based on the employee’s tenure and salary, for life. Usually, the funding expense accrues entirely to the company. Employees are not expected to contribute to the plan, and they do not have individual accounts. Their right is not to an account, but to a stream of payments.
In defined-contribution plans, the benefit is not known, but the contribution is. It comes in a designated amount from the employee, who has a personal account within the plan and chooses investments for it. As investment results are not predictable, the ultimate benefit at retirement is undefined. Nevertheless, the employee owns the account itself and can withdraw or transfer the fund, within plan rules.