What Are Some Ways to Minimize Tax Liability?

These three moves can reduce your taxable income and cut your taxes

Few of us want to pay more tax. Understanding the tax credits and deductions that we're eligible for, and calculating them correctly, can mean the difference between owing more money at tax time or receiving a welcome refund. Here are four simple ways to minimize your tax liability.

Key Takeaways

  • The key to minimizing your tax liability is reducing the amount of your gross income that is subject to taxes.
  • Consider increasing your retirement contributions.
  • Putting pre-tax dollars into an employer-sponsored retirement plan like a 401(k) is one easy way to reduce your taxable income for the year.
  • If you sell an investment that loses its value, you can use that loss to offset other income.
  • Donating to charity can decrease your annual tax bill if you itemize your deductions.

Increase Your Retirement Contributions

The income tax you pay each year is based on your gross income, and for many of us, the easiest way to reduce that figure is by contributing to an employer-sponsored retirement plan or individually held traditional IRA.

The age restriction (70½ years) for contributing to a traditional IRA was lifted following the passage of the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act (SECURE) of 2019. Now seniors can contribute to IRA accounts indefinitely.

Under the SECURE Act, individuals were required to take required minimum distributions (RMDs) from their 401(k) and traditional IRA accounts at the age of 72. That age was raised from 70½ for those who reached that age on or before Dec. 31, 2019. The age for RMDs increased once again when the SECURE Act 2.0 was passed in December 2022. Anyone who turns 73 on or after Jan. 1, 2023, must begin taking these withdrawals from their accounts after that age.

Employer plans, such as a 401(k) or a 403(b), allow you to contribute pre-tax dollars to your account, up to a certain maximum. The maximum is $20,500 for 2022 ($22,500 for 2023). Anyone over the age of 50 can kick in an additional $6,500 as a catch-up contribution (increasing to $7,500 for 2023).

The change to taking distributions from your retirement account may impact taxes, depending on your tax bracket, when you start withdrawing funds.

Contribute to Employer-Sponsored Plans

Contributions to traditional 401(k) or 403(b) plans are made through regular paycheck withholding and offer a direct dollar-for-dollar reduction to total taxable income. Another version of these plans, the Roth 401(k) or Roth 403(b), doesn't provide any upfront tax benefit but does allow for tax-free withdrawals later on.

If an employer-sponsored plan isn't available to you, consider a traditional IRA instead. Your contributions will be made with pre-tax dollars, resulting in a direct reduction to your taxable income for the year and ultimately to your total tax liability.

For 2022, your contributions cannot exceed $6,000 ($6,500 in 2023), with an additional $1,000 allowed for those age 50 and above. As with a 401(k) and 403(b) plans, there is also a Roth IRA, without any immediate tax benefit.

Profit From Investment Losses

Selling off investments that have declined in value since you purchased them can also help you reduce your tax liability for the year—a strategy often referred to as tax-loss harvesting. These investment losses can be written off against your investment gains or other income up to a certain limit each year. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) sets this limit to $3,000 or $1,500 if you're married filing separately.

What's more, any amount you can't use this year can be carried forward to future years, reducing your taxes then, as well. Conversely, it can be beneficial to delay selling an appreciated asset and avoid being taxed on your gain, especially in a year when your taxable income is already high.

The charitable contributions you make during the year can reduce your taxes but only if you itemize deductions.

Donate to Charity

If you itemize deductions on your tax return, as opposed to taking the standard deduction, making contributions to qualified charitable organizations can also reduce your taxes. Contributions can be in the form of cash or goods, such as used household items. However, any donation that has a value exceeding $250 requires a receipt to be a valid deduction.

For more about these and other strategies for reducing your tax bill, it's often a good idea, and well worth the money, to consult a CPA or other knowledgeable tax pro.

Advisor Insight

Mark Struthers, CFA, CFP®
Sona Financial, LLC, Minneapolis, MN

If you’re in a high-deductible health insurance plan, you can open a health savings account (HSA). Contributions and distributions are tax-free when used for medical expenses. The same goes for 529 Plans used for educational expenses. Taxes on the interest earned by Series EE savings bonds can be deferred for 30 years, or until you redeem them. You can avoid taxes on appreciated assets by gifting them to someone, within gift-tax limits. Whenever possible, hold heavily taxable assets in tax-deferred retirement accounts. Just make sure you are not passing up good investment choices or strategies just to avoid giving the IRS its due. Many clients will cut their tax bills to the detriment of sound financial planning. That's the tax tail wagging the investment dog.

Article Sources
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  1. Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics — Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)."

  2. U.S. Congress. "H.R.1994 - Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement Act of 2019."

  3. Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics - IRA Contribution Limits."

  4. Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Plan and IRA Required Minimum Distributions FAQs."

  5. Congress.gov. "H. R. 2617," Page 831.

  6. Internal Revenue Service. “401(k) Limit Increases to $22,500 for 2023, IRA Limit Rises to $6,500.”

  7. Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics - Designated Roth Account."

  8. Internal Revenue Service. "Roth Comparison Chart."

  9. Internal Revenue Service. "Traditional IRAs."

  10. Internal Revenue Service. "Topic No. 409 Capital Gains and Losses."

  11. Internal Revenue Service. "Topic No. 506 Charitable Contributions."

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