Reconciliation is a fundamental account process that ensures the actual money spent matches the money leaving an account at the end of a fiscal period. This is especially important for businesses and individuals to inspect fraudulent activity and to prevent financial statement errors.

At the end of every fiscal month and quarter, it's a good idea to reconcile an account. When reconciling an account, businesses and individuals prove that every transaction sums to the correct ending account balance. Generally, there are two ways to reconcile an account: reviewing documents and reviewing analytics.

Documentation Review

Documentation review is a common process of accounting reconciliation. This process reviews the appropriate amount for each transaction and determines whether the amount in the account matches the actual amount spent. For example, suppose a responsible individual keeps all receipts and likes to make sure that the money spent is going to the right places, but then notices several new charges on the credit card bill.

These charges are small, and they neglect them assuming they are lunch expenses. Then they inspect the company charging the credit card and realizes there are no receipts from this company. This individual calls the credit card company to dispute this and finds that the credit card information is compromised due to a criminal who gathered information from a business. The credit card company and the business reimburse them for the incorrect charges. This active account reconciliation allowed the individual to cancel the credit card and stop all fraudulent activity.

Analytics Review

Analytics review is another common process that individuals or business can use for reconciling an account. Under this process, businesses estimate the actual amount that should be in the accounts based on previous account activity levels. This process is important for businesses to check for fraudulent activity or balance sheet errors.

For example, real estate investment company ABC purchases approximately five buildings per fiscal year, based on previous activity levels. The company reconciles its account every year to check for any discrepancies. This year, it notices that the estimated amount of its expected account balance is off by one whole figure. Based on previous account activity and purchasing, it estimates that its accounts payable should be $5 million. The actual accounts payable balance is $48 million for the year, which is a major discrepancy in its balances. The accountant of company ABC reviews its balance sheet and finds that the bookkeeper entered an extra zero at the end of its accounts payable by accident. The accountant adjusts the accounts payable to $4.8 million, which is approximately the estimated accounts payable.