What Is a Factor Endowment?
A factor endowment represents how many resources a country has at its disposal to be utilized for manufacturing—resources such as labor, land, money, and entrepreneurship. Countries with large or diverse factor endowments are typically more wealthy and able to produce more goods than countries with small factor endowments. Factor endowments also affect the opportunity cost of specializing in producing certain goods relative to others.
As a result of the differences and variation in a country's endowments, factor endowment theory states in economic reasoning that these different breakdowns of capital to labor will determine a country's comparative advantage and what to manufacture or specialize an economy on.
A comparative advantage exists when the opportunity cost of specialization is lower than that of other nations. The existence of a comparative advantage is, in turn, affected by things such as abundance, productivity, cost of labor, land, and capital. Other factors also might influence a country's comparative advantage in practical terms, such as a highly developed financial system or economies of scale.
Factor endowments are the land, labor, capital, and resources that a country has access to, which will give it an economic comparative advantage over other countries.
Examples of Factor Endowments
A simple example of a factor endowment with respect to land would be the presence of geographic scale or natural resources such as oil. Countries with abundant oil tend to export oil, redirecting internal resources toward producing the factor they have in quantity. As of 2019 data, Angola is an extreme example of such specialization: oil accounts for more than 86% of its exports. Other countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), is one of the countries sitting on Africa's copper belt, which holds more than two-thirds of the entire world's cobalt, as per a 2020 USGS report. Cobalt, used in rechargeable batteries for electronic gadgets like cellphones, laptops, and even electric cars, is in high demand—meaning, countries like the DRC have heavily relied on mining this resource, leading even to political tensions over this resource.
On the other hand, countries such as the United States that own more acreage can diversify its efforts; capitalizing on soil-rich regions for agricultural production, while using the coasts for exports, and taking advantage of a larger population and labor force.
Speaking of labor, labor is a key input in most products, from agriculture to cellphones, and its characteristics affect a country's comparative advantage. An abundant labor force means that a country has a lower opportunity cost of specializing in labor-intensive activities. A highly skilled labor force is more expensive and more productive than an unskilled labor force. For example, as China's labor force has grown more skilled, wages have risen and China has begun specializing in more complex manufactured goods.
Changing Factor Endowments
Factor endowments are not static. With education, for example, the characteristics of the labor force can change. The same holds true for investments in capital and infrastructure. Over time, both can affect a country's sources of comparative advantage. As a country develops more complex transportation systems, buildings, and public services, a labor force may be more available to take on complex jobs.