What is the difference between amortization and depreciation?
Because very few assets last forever, one of the main principles of accrual accounting requires that an asset's cost is proportionally expensed based on the period over which the asset was used. Both depreciation and amortization (as well as depletion) are methods that are used to prorate the cost of a specific type of asset over the asset's life. It is important to mention that these methods are calculated by subtracting the asset's salvage value from its original cost.
Amortization usually refers to spreading an intangible asset's cost over that asset's useful life. For example, a patent on a piece of medical equipment usually has a life of 17 years. The cost involved with creating the medical equipment is spread out over the life of the patent, with each portion being recorded as an expense on the company's income statement.
Depreciation, on the other hand, refers to prorating a tangible asset's cost over that asset's life. For example, an office building can be used for many years before it becomes run down and is sold. The cost of the building is spread out over the predicted life of the building, with a portion of the cost being expensed each accounting year.
Depletion refers to the allocation of the cost of natural resources over time. For example, an oil well has a finite life before all of the oil is pumped out. Therefore, the oil well's setup costs are spread out over the predicted life of the oil well.
It is important to note that in some places, such as Canada, the terms amortization and depreciation are often used interchangeably to refer to both tangible and intangible assets.
For more information, see Appreciating Depreciation.