The direct cost margin is calculated by taking the difference between the revenue generated by the sale of goods or services and the sum of all direct costs associated with the production of those goods, divided by the total revenue.
Expressed as a percentage, the direct cost margin indicates what portion of each revenue dollar is retained as profit after accounting for only those expenses incurred for the production of goods and services. The direct cost margin is often referred to as the gross margin, and is an important metric in corporate finance.
Depending on how revenue and expense data are labeled on company financial documents, this margin can be expressed two ways:
Direct Cost Margin = (Revenue - Direct Costs) / Revenue
Gross Margin = (Revenue - Cost of goods sold) / Revenue
What Are Direct Costs?
Direct costs are expenses that can be directly linked to items for sale. For manufacturers, this includes raw materials such as lumber, paint, hardware and the cost of labor needed to build each item. For retail operations, direct costs include the price paid to the wholesaler or manufacturer and any commissions paid to salespeople.
Depending on the operation, it may also include supervisor salaries if the presence of the supervisor is directly and uniquely beneficial to the production or sale of goods. The salaries or wages of employees whose roles are not intrinsically linked to the production or sale of goods are not included as direct costs.
Direct costs are also referred to as the cost of goods sold, or COGS.
Measuring Operational Profitability
The direct cost margin is an excellent indicator of whether a company's most basic expenses are eating into its net profits. A low direct cost margin means relatively little revenue is left over to cover all the other expenses a business incurs in its day-to-day operations. A weak gross margin can easily trickle down to a less-than-impressive net profit margin.
Keeping direct costs down is a crucial component of maintaining a healthy bottom line.