The telecommunication sector is made up of companies that make communication possible on a global scale, whether it is through the phone or the Internet, through airwaves or cables, through wires or wirelessly. These companies created the infrastructure that allows data in words, voice, audio or video to be sent anywhere in the world. The largest companies in the sector are wireless operators, satellite companies, cable companies, and internet service providers.

Evolution of the Telecom Sector

The telecommunications sector evolved from the telegraph, the first mechanical device. It shortened communication from days to hours – much as modern mobile technology shortened the time span of sending large amounts of data from hours to seconds. These shifts are due to technology, and they changed how people live and do business.

At one time, telecommunications required physical wires connecting homes and businesses. In contemporary society, technology has gone mobile. Now, digital, wireless technology is becoming the primary form of communication.

The sector's structure has also changed from a few large players to a more decentralized system with decreased regulation and barriers to entry. Major public corporations act as the service providers, while smaller companies sell and service the equipment, such as routers, switches, and infrastructure, which enable this communication.

For growth investors, these companies provide the best opportunities for share price appreciation. In contrast, larger companies tend to be havens for conservative, income-focused investors.

Five Driving Sector Forces

The evolution of the telecommunications industry in the U.S. centers on five main factors.

  1. Wireless Internet is quickly becoming the industry’s future
  2. Its popularity is consistently increasing revenue
  3. Expansion of high-speed, fiber-based networks is expected
  4. A shortage of airwaves has caused a consolidation within the industry.
  5. There is copious potential for growth

As of 2018, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reports that approximately one-fifth of the rural American population still does not have access to broadband networks.

However, the ultimate determination for growth is the wireless Internet. This piece of the industry is the anticipated keystone for the continued global expansion of the telecommunications sector. Furthermore, this industry has experienced a shift in focus from voice calls to video and data. There is an increasing demand for speedier data connectivity, higher resolution, quicker video streaming, and ample multimedia applications.

Key Telecommunication Segments

The telecommunications sector consists of three basic sub-sectors: telecom equipment (the largest), telecom services (next largest) and wireless communication.

The major segments within these sub-sectors include the following:

  • Wireless communications
  • Communications equipment
  • Processing systems and products
  • Long-distance carriers
  • Domestic telecom services
  • Foreign telecom services
  • diversified communication services

The smallest, but fastest-growing, area within the sector is wireless communications, as more and more communications and computing shift to mobile devices. Looking forward, the sector's biggest challenge is to keep up with people's demand for faster connections as they consume and create content, which requires significant capital expenditures. Companies that can meet these needs thrive.

Investing in Telecommunication

Telecommunications companies are a rarity in the stock market; their shares have, at times, exhibited characteristics of both income and growth stocks. For periods of several years, a company may enjoy its regulatory privileges (like other utilities, telecom firms often are protected from competition by government mandate), and produce reliable, generous dividend yields (generated by high monthly revenue from its stable customer base). Then, suddenly, technological advances or mergers and acquisitions create uncertainty and leave room for loss – and recovery, with fresh growth.

This makes the telecommunications sector is an attractive option for value investors because it is an integral part of the global economy. Demand for telecommunications services persists regardless of changes in the business cycle. But if a firm hits a slump because of shifts in the industry (like the growing importance of wireless devices), value investors might snap it up, provided its fundamentals remain strong and it proves adept at adapting to change. The telecommunications sector's record in paying and regularly raising dividends makes the waiting period for share prices to improve more enjoyable.

However, all of the three major telecom sectors present a greater risk to investors, with stocks registering anywhere from 7% (for services) to 15% (wireless) to 24% (equipment) more volatility than the broader market. Investors with heavy exposure to telecom can expect stronger-than-average gains during bull markets. When a recession or bear market hits, however, losses from this sector can be severe.

Big Players in Telecommunication

Current industry leaders worldwide can change from year to year. Determining which are the largest depends on whether one looks in terms of total sales numbers or in terms of market capitalization value as well. As of 2018, the top five telecom companies ranked by market capitalization are as follows:

  1. Verizon (VZ), which provides wireless and wireline services, in addition to broadband and information services, has a current market capitalization value of approximately $200 billion. It remains attractive as a dividend provider because of its rock-solid financial condition: It is the largest telecom company in the U.S. and operates in 150 countries.
  2. China Mobile Ltd (CHL), which has only been in business since 1997, has a market cap value of approximately $185 billion due to the growth in the use of cell phones and Internet services in China within the past 15 years.
  3. AT&T (T), the oldest company in the telecommunications business, has a market value estimated at approximately $182 billion. China Mobile has eclipsed AT&T in just a little more than a decade of being in business. Still, the former Ma Bell has one-third of the U.S. wireless market share and impressive 30-year history of increasing dividends.
  4. Vodaphone Group (VOD),  the largest telecom company in the United Kingdom, provides voice, broadband, and data services and equipment, and it has a market cap value of approximately $97 billion.
  1. Japan's SoftBank Corp, providing IT software as well as wireless and Internet services, has a current market capitalization value just over $90 billion.

The rankings shift noticeably if you judge in terms of total sales revenue. While Verizon, China Mobile, and AT&T all remain in the top five, Verizon drops to #2 behind Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation (NTT) of Japan, which is a major manufacturer of telecommunications equipment in addition to providing extensive landline, cellphone and Internet services. Spain's Telefonica (TEF) rounds out the top five rankings based on revenue.

Smaller Players in Telecommunication

Some telecom stocks are stuck in penny stock territory, trading at less than $5 a share for numerous reasons. Current ones at that level that show promise include the following:

  1. Alaska Communications Systems Group (ALSK). With its long distance to the contiguous United States, Alaska makes infrastructure complicated. Alaska Communications is the largest broadband provider in the state.
  2. Cincinnati Bell (NYSE: CBB) reports more than 220,000 residential voice lines, 307,000 business lines, and 281,000 Internet subscribers. Cincinnati Bell continues to increase revenue and power its future with growth in fioptics and IT services. This is helping to set up the company for long-term success and also helps connect enterprise customers throughout Ohio.
  3. Frontier Communications (FTR). Frontier offers telecommunications service to 28 states and has been around since 1927. It has more than 3.1 million residential customers and nearly 300,000 business customers. Revenue is likely to rise soon as the company continues to integrate large acquisitions from the likes of Verizon and AT&T. Frontier is betting big on being the leader in wireline communications across the country and is also expanding its broadband base in new territories to increase revenue.
  1. Vonage (VG) connects customers with its cloud communications business. Both consumers and businesses use the company’s technology to connect to mobile numbers and landlines all over the world. The company has 98 patents and 245 pending applications, and Vonage is continually working on monetizing them. Vonage is also aggressively buying back shares of its own stock. The company has bought $148 million worth of its shares since 2012. Vonage shares trade close to the border of penny stock range: between $4.17 and $7.42 over the last 52 weeks.

Telecommunication ETFs

Several exchange-traded funds (ETFs) serve as alternatives to directly investing in individual telecom firms. Telecom ETFs have varying focuses on geography or industry specialization. Some of the most popular include:

  • The Vanguard Telecommunication Services ETF (VOX) is composed of 98% U.S. stocks, ranging from small, regional telecom firms to the big three, Verizon, AT&T, and Sprint.
  • The iShares Dow Jones U.S. Telecommunications Sector Index Fund (IYZ), similar in holdings to Vanguard's Telecommunication Services ETF, also tracks the largest telecom service companies in the U.S. – Sprint, AT&T, and Verizon – along with a handful of smaller regional service providers.
  • The iShares S&P Global Telecom Fund (IXP) is focused internationally, with 70% of its holdings in companies headquartered outside the U.S. Notable stocks include the top five telecom companies ranked by market capitalization: Verizon, AT&T, China Mobile, Vodafone, and Softbank Corp.

Other popular telecom ETFs include the Fidelity MSCI Telecommunication Services Index (FCOM) and the SPDR S&P Telecom ETF (XTL).

Telecommunication Sector Outlook

Analysts foresee that product innovation and an increase in mergers and acquisitions will only facilitate the continued growth and success of the telecommunications industry. There are many opportunities for investors, and an increase in investors will only serve to benefit the sector further.

The long-term historical growth rate of the telecommunications sector averages to a fairly stable rate of approximately 3% per year. The stability of the sector's growth, even during periods of recession, means that it is considered to be a solid defensive investment while maintaining its appeal to growth investors. Even during uncertain and volatile economic times, the steady demand for voice and data services, along with extensive subscription plans, assures a stable source of revenues for major telecom firms.

Telecommunications has become an increasingly important basic industry, which bodes well for its future prospects and continued growth. The continuing advances in high-speed mobile services and Internet connectivity between devices keep driving innovation and competition within the sector. Much of the industry focus is on providing faster data services, especially in the area of high-resolution video. Essentially, the driving forces are toward quicker and clearer services, increased connectivity and multi-application usage.

Emerging market economies continue to be a boon for the industry, with the growth rate of the cell phone industry in countries such as China and India pushing the abilities of hardware producers to keep up with the level of demand.

In the U.S., analysts are paying close attention to issues surrounding net neutrality as the demand for data and video services continue to increase well into the future. There is still a strong demand for wireless spectrum rights, as indicated by the FCC's Incentive Auction that took place in April 2017, not to mention an increasing trend toward consolidation through mergers and acquisitions.

The Bottom Line

Telecommunication companies, like other forms of utilities, often operate with stable customer bases that are protected from competition by government mandate. These pseudo-monopolies allow for consistent dividends. However, the dynamic nature of communications has led to mobile and Internet-based phone systems, undermining the demand for traditional landlines. When this happens, telecommunication companies either suffer or adapt, incorporate the new technology and grow rapidly as consumers buy the latest equipment.