Private Mortgage Insurance vs. Mortgage Insurance Premium: An Overview

If you plan to purchase a house, you'll need to know the differences between private mortgage insurance (PMI) and mortgage insurance premium.

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Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI)

Private Mortgage Insurance

Private mortgage insurance is an insurance policy used in conventional loans that protects lenders from the risk of default and foreclosure and allows buyers who cannot make a significant down payment (or those who choose not to) to obtain mortgage financing at affordable rates.

[Important: If you purchase a home and put down less than 20 percent, your lender will minimize its risk by requiring you to buy insurance from a PMI company prior to signing off on the loan.]

The cost you pay for PMI varies depending on the size of the down payment and loan, but typically runs about 0.5 percent to 1 percent of the loan.

If you have monthly PMI (borrower paid), you make a premium payment every month until your PMI is either:

  • terminated (when your loan balance is scheduled to reach 78 percent of the original value of your home)
  • canceled at your request because your equity in the home reaches 20 percent of the purchase price or appraised value (your lender will approve a PMI cancelation only if you have adequate equity and have a good payment history)
  • you reach the midpoint of the amortization period (a 30-year loan, for example, would reach the midpoint after 15 years)

Other types of PMI include single premium PMI, where you pay the mortgage insurance premium upfront in a single lump sum either in full at closing or financed into the mortgage, or lender-paid PMI (LPMI), where the cost of the PMI is included in the mortgage interest rate for the life of the loan.

Advisor Insight

Steve Kobrin, LUTCF
The firm of Steven H. Kobrin, LUTCF, Fair Lawn, NJ

Foreclosure and default are the two events against which the lender needs to be protected. I'll add a third event for which they commonly want insurance: the death of the borrower.

Banks don't want to chase grieving widows or widowers for money when their spouse dies. They often want you to take out life insurance so the surviving spouse can pay off the loan. It is not mandatory typically but is encouraged.

Many banks are in the life insurance business and hire people to sell this product. The policy is often term insurance that mirrors the performance of the loan. The face amount decreases as you make payments.

This seems like an excellent concept. However, in 25 years of selling life insurance, I have yet to see a decreasing term policy that is less expensive than a level term policy.

Mortgage Insurance Premium

Mortgage insurance premium (MIP), on the other hand, is an insurance policy used in FHA loans if your down payment is less than 20 percent. The FHA assesses either an "upfront" MIP (UFMIP) at the time of closing or an annual MIP that is calculated every year and paid in 12 installments. The rate you pay for annual MIP depends on the length of the loan and the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio. If the loan balance exceeds $625,500, you'll owe a higher percentage.

For loans with FHA case numbers assigned before June 3, 2013, FHA requires that you make your monthly MIP payments for a full five years before MIP can be dropped if your loan term is greater than 15 years, and MIP can be dropped only if the loan balance reaches 78 percent of the home's original price—the purchase price stated on your mortgage documents. If your FHA loan originated after June 2013, however, new rules will apply. If your original LTV is 90 percent or less, you'll pay MIP for 11 years. If your LTV is greater than 90 percent, you'll pay MIP throughout the life of the loan.

Key Takeaways

  • If you purchase a home and put down less than 20 percent, your lender will minimize its risk by requiring you to buy insurance from a PMI company prior to signing off on the loan.
  • Mortgage insurance premium is an insurance policy used in FHA loans if your down payment is less than 20 percent.
  • There are different rules if your FHA loan originated after June 2013.