In economic terms, industrialization is the social and economic transformation of human society from agrarian to industrial. Its environmental drawbacks include pollution of air, water and soil that can result in significant deterioration of quality of life and life expectancy. Because of industrialization, there is a significant separation of labor and capital. Those who own the means of production become disproportionately rich, resulting in high income inequality. The migration of workers, the separation of family members, long working hours and overcrowding that result from industrialization can lead to social tension and diseases due to poor nutrition and stress.
By far, the biggest negative effect of industrialization is on the environment. Because many industrialized companies are often not forced to pay damages for the environmental harm they cause, they tend to impose a major negative externality on human society in the form of deforestation, extinction of species, widespread pollution and excessive waste.
Financially, industrialization results in a wide gap between the rich and poor due to a division of labor and capital. Those who own capital tend to accumulate excessive profits derived from their economic activities, resulting in high disparity of income and wealth.
Industrialization typically leads to the migration of workers to cities, automation and repetitive tasks. Due to these factors, factory workers tend to lose their individuality, have limited job satisfaction and feel alienated. There can also be health issues, brought on by dangerous working conditions or simply factors inherent in the working conditions, such as noise and dirt.
Rapid urbanization brought on by industrialization typically leads to general deterioration of workers' quality of life and many other problems for society, such as crime, stress and psychological disorders. Long working hours usually lead to poor nutrition and consumption of quick and low-quality foods, resulting in increased incidences of diseases such as diabetes, heart attack and strokes.