Schedule F: Profit or Loss from Farming: Definition, Uses, Filing

What Is Schedule F: Profit or Loss from Farming?

If you are a farmer and your farming business is a sole proprietorship, you must file Schedule F (titled "Profit or Loss from Farming") to report your agricultural business’s net profit or loss for the tax year.

Livestock, dairy, poultry, fish, and fruit farmers as well as owner/operators of plantations, ranches, ranges, nurseries, or orchards are considered farmers for the purposes of Schedule F. Your farming profit or loss is then transferred to a Form 1040 for computing your total tax liability. Schedule F is to farmers what Schedule C is to other sole proprietors.

Key Takeaways

  • Schedule F is used to report taxable income earned from farming or agricultural activities.
  • This schedule must be included on Form 1040 tax return, regardless of the type of farm income.
  • Schedule F also allows for various farm-related credits and deductions.

What Is Schedule F Used For?

Schedule F asks about your principal farming activity or crop; your income from selling livestock, produce, grains, or other products; and whether you received farm income from cooperative distributions, agricultural program payments, Commodity Credit Corporation loans, crop insurance proceeds, federal crop disaster payments, or any other sources. Schedule F provides different ways to account for your income depending on whether you use the cash or accrual method.

Schedule F: Profit or Loss From Farming

Cash Method

Farmers who use the cash method of accounting would report revenue in the tax year it is received from buyers. Farming expenses are deducted in the tax year they are paid.

Accrual Method

Under the accrual method, revenue and expenses are reported in the year transactions occur, even if money is received or paid out the following year.

Income Sources

In U.S. agricultural policy, farm income can be divided as follows:

  • Gross Cash Income: the sum of all receipts from the sale of crops, livestock, and farm-related goods and services, as well as any direct payments from the government.
  • Gross Farm Income: the same as gross cash income with the addition of non-money income, such as the value of home consumption of self-produced food.
  • Net Cash Income: the gross cash income less all cash expenses, such as for feed, seed, fertilizer, property taxes, interest on debt, wages, contract labor, and rent to non-operator landlords.
  • Net Farm Income: the gross farm income less cash expenses and non-cash expenses, such as capital consumption and farm household expenses.
  • Net Cash Income: a short-term measure of cash flow.

Individuals will be liable for taxes if the farm is operated for profit, whether the taxpayer owns the farm or is a tenant.

Deductible Expenses

You’ll also need to fill out Schedule F to claim tax deductions for your farming business, which will lower your tax bill. Deductions you may be able to claim include—but are not limited to—the expenses you paid for:

  • Business vehicle(s)
  • Chemicals
  • Conservation
  • Depreciation
  • Employee benefits
  • Feed
  • Fertilizers
  • Freight and trucking
  • Gasoline and other fuel
  • Insurance
  • Interest
  • Hired labor
  • Pension and profit-sharing plans
  • Repairs and maintenance
  • Seeds and plants
  • Storage and warehousing, supplies
  • Taxes
  • Utilities
  • Veterinary fees
  • Rent or lease fees for vehicles, machinery, equipment, land, and the like

Payments Made to Third Parties

Schedule F also asks if you made any payments during the tax year that required you to file Form 1099 and if you have filed it. An example of a case where you would need to file Form 1099 is if you hired an independent contractor to perform more than $600 worth of work, such as transporting your produce to a weekly farmer's market, for your farm business. 

Additional Resources When Filing Schedule F

For more information, IRS Publication 225, the Farmer's Tax Guide, is a document that helps those involved in agribusiness navigate the farming-specific tax code. The document details and outlines how the federal government taxes farms. IRS Publication 225 outlines the different accounting methods that farmers may use for running their operations and how farmers must report farm income.

Along with IRS Publication 225, the IRS publishes IRS Publication 51, a document specific to the employers of agricultural workers. Publication 51 provides guidance on how individuals who employ workers in the agribusiness must comply with tax withholdings. Sometimes the U.S. Department of Labor requires employers to register with the DOL and also does not allow employers to label farm employees as independent contractors.

Should I File a Schedule C or Schedule F?

If you are a sole proprietor whose main source of income is from farming, you should file a Schedule F. Other sole proprietors typically file a Schedule C.

Do I File a Schedule F If I Am Self-Employed?

If you are a self-employed famer set up as a sole proprietor, you are required to file a Schedule F. If you are self-employed in another industry, you will likely need to file a Schedule C.

Which Farming Profits Do I Report on a Schedule F?

Farm income profits can include money generated by farm or agribusiness operations. Some examples are profits from the sale of crops, livestock, and farm-related goods and services.

The Bottom Line

If you are a farmer and your farming business is set up as a sole proprietorship, you’re required to file a Schedule F to report net profits or losses each tax year. Farming profits or losses are transferred to Form 1040 to calculate your total tax liability for the year. Essentially, Schedule F is to farmers what Schedule C is to sole proprietors in other industries.

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  1. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 225: Farmer's Tax Guide," Page 1.

  2. Internal Revenue Service. "About Schedule F (Form 1040), Profit or Loss from Farming."

  3. Internal Revenue Service. "About Schedule C (Form 1040), Profit or Loss from Business (Sole Proprietorship)."

  4. Internal Revenue Service. "2022 Schedule F: Profit or Loss from Farming," Page 1.

  5. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 225: Farmer's Tax Guide," Pages 4–6.

  6. Congressional Research Service. "Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition," Page 97.

  7. Internal Revenue Service. "2022 Instructions for Schedule F: Profit or Loss for Farming," Pages 3-4.

  8. Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 51: (Circular A), Agricultural Employer's Tax Guide," Pages 9-10.