Just because you are a one-person outfit, a freelancer, or an independent contractor, you don't have to go without a retirement plan. If you are self-employed, you can set up a solo 401(k), also known as an independent 401(k) plan, on your own. Solo 401(k)s also have benefits over other types of retirement accounts.
- Self-employed individuals who meet certain requirements can set up a solo 401(k) to save for retirement.
- This type of plan offers several benefits over other types of retirement accounts.
- One of the main benefits is that contribution limits are typically higher than other retirement plans.
Let's start by taking a look at what is required to set one up and how they work.
In order to invest in a solo 401(k), you must meet certain requirements. The first stipulates that you and not an employer are responsible for your income. Sole proprietors, small business owners without employees (though spouses can contribute if they work for the business), independent contractors, and freelancers typically fit this description.
The second requirement that must be met is presence of income. This can be verified through tax records. If you meet both criteria, you can open a solo 401(k) plan.
Steps to Set Up a Solo 401(k)
According to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), there are specific steps that must be taken in order to properly open a solo 401(k) plan. First, you have to adopt a plan in writing, which means you have to make a written declaration of the type of plan you intend to fund. You can choose between two types of retirement plans: traditional and Roth. Each have distinct tax benefits.
A solo 401(k) must be set up by December 31 in the tax year for which you are making contributions.
With a traditional individual plan, you invest your dollars pre-tax. When you reach retirement age, you pay taxes on the funds—including the money your investments have earned over the years—as you withdraw them. This allows you to invest money that lowers your taxes while you are still working.
The downside is that when you are ready to withdraw your money, the tax rate could be higher than when you initially invested and the additional tax burden might erase any tax benefits received previously. Keep in mind, though, that retirees are often in a lower tax bracket than during their working years.
Roth plans are funded with after-tax dollars. Since you've already given the IRS its cut, withdrawals are tax free when it's time to retire. What's also good about Roths is that you don't pay taxes on any money your savings have earned over the years when you were building up your account.
Once the type of plan has been established, you will need to create a trust that will hold the funds until you need them or you reach retirement age. You can select an investment firm, online brokerage, or insurance company to manage the plan for you. You will also need to establish an excellent record-keeping system for the plan so all investments are accounted for at all times.
Benefits of a Solo 401(k)
Solo 401(k)s provide several advantages over other types of retirement accounts.
One of the main advantages is that contribution limits are typically the highest among retirement plans. Like an employer-sponsored 401(k), contributions can be made from the employee and employer. With a solo 401(k) you wear both hats and can make contributions as each.
As the employee you can contribute $19,000 in 2019. If you are 50 or older there is also a catch-up contribution of $6,000. Wearing the employer hat you can contribute up to 25% of your compensation. The total contribution limit for a solo 401(k) is $56,000 in 2019, not counting the $6,000 catch-up contribution for those 50 and over.
Compare this to the $6,000 contribution limit for an IRA (or $7,000 for those 50 and older) and $19,000 for a employer-sponsored 401(k) (or $25,000 for those eligible for the catch-up contribution).
The ability to choose between a traditional and Roth plan is also a benefit. This means that you can choose a plan with the tax advantage that works best for you.
Another benefit is that unlike a SEP IRA, another tax-advantaged retirement account often recommended for small businesses/self-employed types, you can take loans from the plan. In general, it's not advisable to borrow from your retirement fund, but it's a decent option to have in case you need some quick cash.
With proper planning and diligence, a solo 401(k) offers the potential to enjoy a comfortable retirement after years of being your own boss and working on your own terms.