401(k) vs. Roth IRA: An Overview
Both 401(k)s and Roth IRAs are popular tax-advantaged retirement savings accounts that differ in tax treatment, investment options, and employer contributions. Both accounts allow your savings to grow tax-free.
Contributions to a 401(k) are pretax, meaning they are deposited before your income taxes are deducted from your paycheck. However, when in retirement, withdrawals are taxed at your then-current income tax rate. Conversely, there is no tax savings or deduction for contributions to a Roth IRA. However, the contributions can be withdrawn tax-free when in retirement.
In a perfect scenario, you’d have both in which to put aside funds for retirement. However, before you decide, there are several rules, income limits, and contribution limits that investors should be aware of before deciding which retirement account works best for them.
- Both 401(k)s and Roth IRAs allow your savings to grow tax-free.
- Many employers offer a 401(k) match, which matches your contributions up to a specific percentage of your income.
- Contributions to a 401(k) are pretax, meaning they reduce your income before your taxes are withdrawn from your paycheck.
- Conversely, there is no tax deduction for contributions to a Roth IRA, but contributions can be withdrawn tax-free in retirement.
- Retirement distributions from 401(k)s are taxed at your previous income's tax rate.
Named after section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code, a 401(k) is an employer-sponsored retirement plan. To contribute to a 401(k), you designate a portion of each paycheck to divert into the plan. These contributions occur before income taxes are deducted from your paycheck.
The investment options among different 401(k) plans can vary tremendously, depending on the plan provider. Typically, plans offer a mix of mutual funds and exchange-traded funds, which contain a basket of securities or stocks. Nevertheless, no matter which fund (or funds) you choose, any investment gains realized within the plan are not taxed by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) until the funds are withdrawn (whereas Roth IRAs are never taxed, even in withdrawal).
Investment gains you make within your 401(k) are never taxed by the IRS.
401(k) contribution limits
Notably, 401(k)s have much higher contribution limits than Roth IRAs do.
The 2021 contribution limits are as follows:
- $19,500 if you’re under age 50 (rising to $20,500 in 2022)
- $26,000, which includes an allowance for a catch-up contribution of an extra $6,500 if you’re age 50 or older (rising to $27,000 for 2022)
401(k) employer match
Overall, 401(k) plans are most beneficial when your employer offers a match, contributing additional money to your 401(k) account. The match is usually a percentage of your contribution, up to a certain percentage of your salary.
For example, your employer might match 50% of your contributions, up to 6% of your salary. The employer match doesn’t count toward your contribution limit, but the IRS does cap the total amount that can go into your 401(k) each year (your contributions plus the match).
For 2021 and 2022, the combined contribution limits for a 401(k) are as follows:
- $58,000 in total contributions if you’re under age 50
- $64,500 if you’re age 50 or older, including the $6,500 catch-up contribution
- 100% of your salary (if it’s less than the dollar limits)
- $61,000 in total contributions if you are under age 50
- $67,500 if you are age 50 or older, including the $6,500 catch-up contribution
- 100% of your salary (if it is less than the dollar limits)
401(k) and Taxes
You get a tax break when you contribute to a 401(k). That's because you can deduct your contributions when you file your income tax return. This reduces your taxable income, which can save you money.
You’ll pay taxes after you reach retirement age and begin to make withdrawals from the plan. These withdrawals are called distributions and are subject to income taxes at your then-current tax rate. If you think your income will be higher when you retire, you may want to plan ahead, as all income from your distributions will be taxed.
401(k) required minimum distributions
If you have a 401(k), you have to start taking required minimum distributions (RMDs). Your RMD is the minimum amount that must be withdrawn each year from your 401(k) account when you're in retirement.
In other words, you can't leave all of your money in an 401(k); otherwise, there'll be a 50% tax penalty on the amounts of the RMD that was not withdrawn. You must begin taking required minimum distributions RMDs by April 1 of the year following the year you turn 72 or the year you retire, whichever is later.
Here’s a quick look at the pros and cons of 401(k) plans.
Higher contribution limits
Maintained by employer
Fewer investment options
Required minimum distributions
A variation of traditional individual retirement accounts (IRAs), a Roth IRA is set up directly between an individual and an investment firm. Your employer is not involved.
As you set up and control the account, your investment choices aren’t limited to what the plan provider offers. This gives IRA holders a greater degree of investment freedom than employees have with 401(k) plans, even though the fees charged by those providers are typically higher.
In contrast to the 401(k), after-tax money is used to fund a Roth IRA, meaning you get no tax deduction in the years you make contributions or deposits. As a result, no income taxes are levied on withdrawals during retirement. While in the account, any investment gains are untaxed.
Roth IRA contribution limits
The contribution limits are much smaller with Roth IRA accounts. For 2021 and 2022, the maximum annual contribution for a Roth IRA is:
- $6,000 if you’re under age 50
- $7,000 if you’re age 50 or older, which includes a $1,000 catch-up contribution
Roth IRA Income Limits
The Roth IRA income limits are different for 2021 versus 2022. How much you can contribute to a Roth IRA depends, in part, on how much you earned in that year. In other words, the contribution amount allowed can be reduced, or phased out, until it's eliminated, depending on your income and filing status for your taxes (i.e., single or married).
For individuals with a tax filing status of single, you can make a full contribution if your income is below $125,000. The income phase-out range has been increased to $125,000 to $140,000.
If you're a married couple filing jointly, for 2021, full contributions are allowed if you make less than $198,000, while the income phase-out range is $198,000 to $208,000.
For individuals filing taxes as single, you can make a full contribution to a Roth if your income is less than $129,000. Your contributions would be reduced or phased out if your income was between $129,000 and $144,000. If you earned more than $144,000, you couldn't make any contributions to a Roth IRA.
If you were married filing jointly, you could make a full contribution to a Roth if your income was less than $204,000. Your contributions would be reduced or phased out if your income was between $204,000 and $214,000. If you earned more than these IRS-imposed limits, you couldn’t contribute to a Roth IRA.
Roth IRA Withdrawals
You can withdraw your Roth IRA contributions at any time or any age with no tax or penalty. Withdrawals on earnings, however, could be subject to income taxes and a 10% penalty, depending on your age and how long you’ve had the account.
In general, you can avoid taxes and the penalty if your account is at least five years old and the withdrawal is:
- Made after you turn age 59½
- Taken due to a permanent disability
- Made by your beneficiary or estate after your death
- Used to buy, build, or rebuild your first home (a $10,000-lifetime maximum applies)
If you don’t meet those guidelines, you may be able to avoid the penalty (but not the tax) if a qualified exception applies. Unlike 401(k)s, Roth IRAs have no RMDs during your lifetime. If you don’t need the money in retirement, you can leave it in the account, where it can continue to grow tax-free for your beneficiaries.
Below is a rundown of the pros and cons of Roth IRAs.
Withdrawals are tax-free in retirement
More investment choices
No RMDs during your lifetime
Lower contribution limits
Income limits can prevent you from contributing
No employer match
Here’s a rundown of the differences between 401(k)s and Roth IRAs.
|401(k)s vs. Roth IRAs|
|Upfront tax break||Yes. Contributions are deductible.||No|
|Withdrawals||Taxed as ordinary income||Tax-free|
|Contribution Limits||In 2021, $19,500, or $26,000 if you’re 50 or over. In 2022, $20,500 or $27,000 if you're 50 or over.||$6,000, or $7,000 if you’re age 50 or over|
|Income Limits||No||Yes. At higher incomes contributions are reduced or eliminated.|
|Employer Match||Yes. In 2021, there’s a $58,000 ($64,500 for 50 or over) limit on combined employer/employee contributions. The limits are $61,000 ($67,500 for 50 or over) in 2022.||No|
|Automatic Payroll Deduction||Yes||No|
|Earliest age to withdraw funds without penalty||59½||Withdraw contributions at any time, earnings at 59½|
|RMDs||Yes. RMDs must start by April 1 following the later of the year you reach age 72 or the year you retire.||Not during the owner’s lifetime|
In many cases, a Roth IRA can be a better choice than a 401(k) retirement plan, as it offers a flexible investment vehicle with greater tax benefits—especially if you think you’ll be in a higher tax bracket later on. However, if your income is too high to contribute to a Roth, your employer offers a match, and you want to stash more money each year, a 401(k) is hard to beat.
A good strategy (if you can manage it) is to have both a 401(k) and a Roth IRA. Invest in your 401(k) up to the matching limit, then fund a Roth up to the contribution limit. After that, any leftover funds can go toward your 401(k)’s contribution limit.
Still, everyone’s financial situation is different, so it pays to do your homework before making any decisions. When in doubt, speak with a qualified financial planner who can answer any questions and help you make the right choice for your situation.
Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute. "26 CFR Sec. 1.401(k)-1 - Certain cash or deferred arrangements."
Internal Revenue Service. "401(k) Plans."
Internal Revenue Service. "Roth Comparison Chart."
Internal Revenue Service. "2022 Limitations Adjusted as Provided in Section 415(d), etc."
Internal Revenue Service. "Income Ranges for Determining IRA Eligibility Change for 2021."
Internal Revenue Service. "401(k) Plans - Deferrals and Matching When Compensation Exceeds the Annual Limit."
Internal Revenue Service. "2021 Limitations Adjusted as Provided in Section 415(d), etc.," Page 1.
Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics — Required Minimum Distributions (RMDs)."
Internal Revenue Service. "Roth IRAs."
Internal Revenue Service. "Retirement Topics - IRA Contribution Limits."
Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 590-B: Distributions from Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)." Page 28.
Internal Revenue Service. "Publication 590-B: Distributions From Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)." Page 5.
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