Why Were 401(k) Plans Created?

As the most widely used and well-known retirement savings plans in the United States, 401(k) plans were the brainchild of benefits consultant Ted Benna. In 1979, Benna noticed that the rules established in the Revenue Act of 1978 made it possible for employers to establish simple, tax-advantaged savings accounts for their employees.

History of the 401(k)

The term "401(k)" refers to Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code. The provision allows employees to avoid taxation on parts of their income if they elect to receive it as deferred compensation rather than as direct pay.

Benna designed the 401(k) plan for a bank client seeking to give employees additional retirement benefits. However, the bank rejected the idea because it had never been done before, so Benna offered the first 401(k) plan to his own employees at The Johnson Companies. By 1981, the IRS had proposed formal rules for 401(k) plans.

By the next year, several large companies began to offer new 401(k) plans to employees. Participants in 401(k) plans could then use their deferred income to make investments without being taxed on gains.

These new accounts quickly became popular. In 1983, 7.1 million employees participated in a 401(k) plan, a number that grew to 38.9 million by 1993. As of 2019, 401(k) plans covered an estimated 80 million people and held $5.7 trillion in assets.

In 2001, Congress passed the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act, which enabled catch-up contributions for participants age 50 and older. The act also allowed companies to offer Roth 401(k) accounts, which require post-tax contributions but provide the benefit of tax-free growth and distribution.

Purpose and Uses of the 401(k)

Modern 401(k) plans were not an intentional design of the U.S. government or the Internal Revenue Service. Indeed, the U.S. Treasury Department under Ronald Reagan proposed killing the 401(k) in 1984. The concern was that tax receipts would fall too fast as more workers funded their retirement plans.

Employees receive two significant benefits from 401(k) plans and other tax-exempt retirement accounts: first, there is the obvious tax benefit. Second, employees have a way to protect their retirement savings from losing real purchasing power through inflation. On the downside, 401(k) plans are riskier for employees than defined benefits plans, which are federally guaranteed.

There are obvious benefits to employers as well. For instance, the costs of offering retirement benefits have declined significantly. Small businesses particularly benefit from the new defined contribution plans. The plan allows these businesses to offer similar benefits packages to employees as those found in larger companies, leveling the playing field.

The federal government encourages the use of 401(k)s and other retirement plans. Even though tax receipts decline as more people participate, a population that funds its own retirement ends up reducing government expenditures on welfare programs for the elderly.

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  1. Benna 401k. "A Brief History of 401K."

  2. Office of the Law Revision Council, United States Code. "26 USC 401: Qualified Pension, Profit-Sharing, and Stock Bonus Plans."

  3. Federal Register. "Federal Register Vol. 46, No. 217," Pages 55544-55550.

  4. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. "Not Your Father’s Pension Plan: The Rise of 401(k) and Other Defined Contribution Plans," Page 23.

  5. United States Department of Labor. "Private Pension Plan Bulletin," Pages 2-3.

  6. U.S. Congress. "H.R.1836 - Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001."

  7. U.S. Department of the Treasury. "Tax Reform for Fairness, Simplicity, and Economic Growth," Page 116.

  8. Internal Revenue Service. "401(k) Plans."

  9. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. "How PBGC Operates."

  10. U.S. Department of Labor. "Choosing a Retirement Solution for Your Small Business."

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