Should I Cash Out of Mutual Funds to Pay Off Debt?

If you have invested in mutual funds, using them to pay off debt may seem like an attractive option. You may assume that you’ll get more benefit from using the money that you’ve invested to eliminate debt, especially debt with high interest rates.

But cashing in your mutual funds is not always the best way to become debt-free. And depending on where you hold your mutual funds, you could end up owing taxes. Learn about the pros and cons of cashing out mutual funds to pay off debt.

Key Takeaways

  • Cashing out mutual funds may not be the best option for repaying debt.
  • You may owe capital gains tax on mutual funds that you cash out from a taxable brokerage account.
  • Cashing out mutual funds from an IRA or other qualified retirement account could trigger income tax on earnings, as well as an early withdrawal tax penalty.
  • Withdrawing money from your investments to pay debt means missing out on future growth from compounding interest.

Pros and Cons of Cashing Out Mutual Funds to Pay Off Debt

Using mutual funds to pay off debt may seem appealing at first glance. If you aren’t using the money that you’ve invested for any particular financial goal, then why not use it to pay off credit cards, student loans, or other debts? After all, eliminating debt can free up more money in your budget that you can then reinvest in mutual funds, stocks, or other securities.

However, there are there are two major drawbacks with cashing out mutual funds to pay down debt. The first is taxes and the second is how it may negatively impact your long-term financial goals.


If you have mutual funds in a taxable brokerage account, then cashing them out may trigger capital gains tax if you’re selling them and taking a profit. Short-term capital gains on securities owned for less than one year are subject to ordinary income tax rates. The long-term capital gains tax rate is 0%, 15%, or 20%, depending on your income.

If you hold mutual funds inside an individual retirement account (IRA), then you can avoid capital gains tax. But you may pay ordinary income tax on earnings, as well as a 10% early withdrawal penalty, depending on the type of IRA, how long you’ve had the account, and your age at the time of withdrawal.

If the mutual funds are in a tax-advantaged account like a traditional IRA, you may pay ordinary income tax on the entire withdrawal. A 10% penalty may apply. The rules are slightly different for Roth IRAs, especially when it comes to taxes. You can withdraw all your deposits from a Roth IRA tax-free, but you must pay taxes on any earnings if you make the withdrawals before your retirement age.

Long-term consequences

Aside from the tax consequences of using mutual funds to pay down debt, it’s also important to consider how it may impact your ability to grow wealth.

By selling off mutual funds and not replacing them with other investments, you miss out on the power of compounding interest. Depending on how much of your mutual fund holdings you sell, you could lose the potential for significant growth over time.


If you’re considering cashing out mutual funds in a brokerage account, use an online capital gains tax calculator to estimate how much you may owe on the sale.

Other Options for Paying Off Debt

Cashing out mutual funds isn’t the only way to manage debt. Other possibilities for eliminating debt faster while also saving money on interest include:

  • Refinancing student loans, personal loans, or other loans at a lower interest rate
  • Consolidating credit card debts into a single personal loan
  • Taking advantage of 0% credit card balance transfer offers
  • Using a home equity loan to consolidate debts
  • Selling vehicles or other non-investment assets that you own and applying the proceeds to your debt balances

If you’re struggling with debt repayment, then you may consider other options, such as a debt management plan or debt settlement. With a debt management plan, you work with a certified credit counselor to create a plan for paying off what you owe. This may include reducing interest rates or fees. You make a single payment to the credit counselor, who then distributes the funds among your creditors.

You may consider debt settlement for past-due debts. This involves working with a consumer debt specialist to negotiate debts with creditors. The goal is to pay off debts for less than what’s owed to avoid filing for bankruptcy as a last resort.


Debt management and debt settlement can have negative impacts to your credit score, so it’s important to weigh these options carefully.

Making an Informed Decision

If you’re considering selling mutual funds to pay off debt, it’s important to do your research beforehand. Your broker or financial advisor can provide you with the expected rate of return for a mutual fund going forward.

Compare this rate to the fund’s historical performance to ensure its accuracy. If the mutual funds pay dividends, then this amount should be included in the assessment. If funds are held within a retirement account, find out the fees and penalties for cashing out.

Again, cashing out of a traditional IRA before age 59½ results in a 10%, or 25% if you have a SIMPLE IRA, tax penalty. There are exceptions for withdrawals, such as disability, medical debt, certain educational expenses, and buying a home. Mutual funds held within regular brokerage accounts have the standard commission charges, but the fund itself still may charge a fee for redeeming your shares. Brokers and financial advisors are great resources for this information.

Can You Use a 401(k) Loan to Repay Debt?

A 401(k) loan also is an option for repaying debt, but if you separate from your job before the loan is repaid, then the entire amount could be treated as a taxable distribution.

How Much Tax Will I Pay if I Cash Out My Mutual Funds?

When you make a withdrawal on your mutual funds, you will have to pay tax as if it were ordinary income if you are making the withdrawal from a tax-advantaged account. So the taxation amount will depend on your tax bracket for that year.

Can I Withdraw Money from Mutual Fund at Any Time?

You can generally withdraw money from a mutual fund at any time without penalty. However, if the mutual fund is held in a tax-advantaged account like an IRA, you may face early withdrawal penalties, depending on the type of account and how the mutual fund has performed.

The Bottom Line

While becoming debt-free may be relief, there are some downsides to consider if you’re using mutual funds to achieve that goal. Fees and penalties are red flags when thinking about cashing in your mutual funds. Loss of future investment income and the lack of a retirement account can put you in a worse situation later in life.

You can make additional debt payments using current income to shorten the length of the loan and reduce the total amount of interest that you have to pay, assuming your budget allows it. If you’re truly struggling with how to repay debt, then consider reaching out to debt relief companies to see how they may be able to help.

When researching debt relief companies, be sure to get a clear explanation of the services that they offer and the fees that you might have to pay before signing a contract for services.

Article Sources
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  2. Internal Revenue Service. “Retirement Topics — Exceptions to Tax on Early Distributions.”

  3. Internal Revenue Service. “Retirement Topics — Exceptions to Tax on Early Distributions.”

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