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Table of Contents

Positive vs. Normative Economics: What's the Difference?

Positive vs. Normative Economics: An Overview

Positive economics and normative economics are two standard branches of modern economics. Positive economics describes and explains various economic phenomena, while normative economics focuses on the value of economic fairness or what the economy should be.

To put it simply, positive economics is called the "what is" branch of economics. Normative economics, on the other hand, is considered the branch of economics that tries to determine the desirability of different economic programs and conditions by asking what "should" or what "ought" to be.

Key Takeaways

  • Positive economics describes and explains various economic phenomena.
  • Normative economics focuses on the value of economic fairness, or what the economy "should be" or "ought to be."
  • While positive economics is based on fact and cannot be approved or disapproved, normative economics is based on value judgments.
  • Most public policy is based on a combination of both positive and normative economics.
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Positive And Normative Economics

Positive Economics

Positive economics is a stream of economics that focuses on the description, quantification, and explanation of economic developments, expectations, and associated phenomena. It relies on objective data analysis, relevant facts, and associated figures. It attempts to establish any cause-and-effect relationships or behavioral associations which can help ascertain and test the development of economic theories.

Positive economics is objective and fact-based where the statements are precise, descriptive, and clearly measurable. These statements can be measured against tangible evidence or historical instances. There are no instances of approval-disapproval in positive economics.

Here's an example of a positive economic statement: "Government-provided healthcare increases public expenditures." This statement is fact-based and has no value judgment attached to it. Its validity can be proven (or disproven) by studying healthcare spending where governments provide healthcare.

Positive economics was popularized by the economist Milton Friedman, who said that economic science should objectively analyze data without any bias or agenda.

Normative Economics

Normative economics focuses on value-based judgments aimed at improving economic development, investment projects, and the distribution of wealth. Its goal is to summarize the desirability (or lack thereof) of various economic developments, situations, and programs by asking what should happen or what ought to be.

Normative economics is subjective and value-based, originating from personal perspectives or opinions involved in the decision-making process. The statements of this type of economics are rigid and prescriptive in nature. They often sound political, which is why this economic branch is also called "what should be" or "what ought to be" economics.

An example of a normative economic statement is: "The government should provide basic healthcare to all citizens." As you can deduce from this statement, it is value-based, rooted in personal perspective, and satisfies the requirement of what "should" be.

One of the most famous normative economists is Amartya Sen, a Nobel prize winner who devoted his career to studying development economics.

Special Considerations

Common observations indicate that discussions around public policies typically involve normative economic statements. A higher degree of disagreement persists in such discussions because neither party can clearly prove their correctness.

Though normative statements are generalized and subjective in nature, they act as the necessary channels for out-of-the-box thinking. Such opinions can form the foundation for any necessary changes that may have the potential to completely transform a particular project.

But normative economics cannot be the sole basis for decision-making on key economic fronts. Positive economics fills in for the objective angle that focuses on facts and cause-and-effect. Coupled with positive economics, normative economics may be useful in establishing, generating, and fulfilling new ideas and theories for different economic goals and perspectives.

A clear understanding of the difference between positive and normative economics may lead to better policy-making if policies are made based on a balanced mix of facts (positive economics) and opinions (normative economics). Nonetheless, numerous policies on issues ranging from international trade to welfare are at least partially based on normative economics.

What Is an Example of Normative Economics?

Any economic agenda that promotes some sort of social or policy agenda could be said to be normative. For instance, arguing for a higher minimum wage for the benefit of workers would be an example of a normative argument, in that this argument is based on subjective values. However, an assertion that higher minimum wages would lead to a higher GDP would be considered positive economics.

What Is a Positive Theoretical Statement?

A positive statement is one that can establish hypotheses that can be empirically tested. In contrast, a normative statement is instead based on opinion or subjective values.

Is Positive Economics Better Than Normative Economics?

Both types have their place, and on their own both also have flaws. Integrating positive and normative economic statements together is often required in order to create the policies of a country, region, industrial sector, institution, or business.

Article Sources
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  1. Policonomics. "Positive economics."

  2. Milton Friedman. "The Methodology of Positive Economics", in Essays In Positive Economics, Pages 3-16 and 30-43. University of Chicago Press, 1966,

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