The interest coverage ratio is one of several debt ratios that market analysts utilize. The formula allows investors or analysts to determine how comfortably interest on all its outstanding debt can be paid by a company. The ratio is calculated by using the interest expenses (the cost of borrowed funding) of a company during a given period of time, usually annually, to divide its earnings before interest and taxes over that same period of time. The equation is as follows:
Interest Coverage Ratio = Earnings Before Interest and Tax (EBIT) / Interest on debt expenses
A bad interest coverage ratio is any number below 1, as this translates to the company's current earnings being insufficient to service the company's currently outstanding debt. The chances of a company being able to continue to meet its interest expenses are doubtful even with an interest coverage ratio below 1.5, especially if the company is vulnerable to seasonal or cyclical dips in income.
Although a company with difficulties servicing its debt may manage to stay financially afloat for a significant period of time, it is vital for analysts and investors to stay abreast of the companyâ€™s ability to pay off interest obligations. A low interest coverage ratio is a definite red flag for investors, as it can be an early warning signal of impending bankruptcy.
The number that constitutes a good, or at least minimally acceptable, interest coverage ratio varies according to the type of business a company is engaged in, as well as the company's individual history of monthtomonth or yeartoyear revenues. For a company that has shown the ability to maintain revenues at a fairly consistent level, an interest coverage ratio of 2 or better may be minimally acceptable to analysts or investors. For companies with revenues that have historically been more volatile, the interest coverage ratio may not be considered a good one unless it is well above 3.

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