A:

The major difference between the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500) is that the DJIA is a price-weighted average of 30 stocks whereas the S&P 500 is a market value-weighted index of 500 stocks. The Averages Committee, which oversees the Dow, picks the stocks comprising the DJIA, while an S&P committee picks the 500 stocks in the S&P 500.

The Dow is comprised of 30 of the largest and most reputable companies in the U.S. across a range of industries except for transport and utilities. The criteria for a company to get on the Dow is vague; the companies are leaders in their industry and very large. The components in the DJIA do not change often as it takes an important change in a company for it to be removed from the index, and if the index comes up for review, the Averages Committee often replace more than one company at a time.

The S&P 500 is comprised of 500 large companies from a vast number of industries, picked based on the following criteria:

1. Market capitalization of more than $5.3 billion
2. The sum of the most recent four consecutive quarters' earnings must be positive – as should the most recent quarter
3. Adequate liquidity measured by price and volume (annual dollar value traded to market cap should be at 1 or greater)
4. Public float of at least 50%

Both of these measurements are used by investors to determine the general trend of the U.S. stock market. However, the S&P 500 is more encompassing as it includes a greater sample of total U.S. stocks and because the S&P 500 is market-value weighted, it attempts to ensure that a 10% change in a $20 stock will affect the index like a 10% change in a $50 stock. The DJIA, on the other hand, is price-weighted, which means the average is affected considerably more by the large stocks within its portfolio.

To recap:

DJIA:
1. 30 North American stocks picked by the Averages Committee. 
2. Calculated through a method of simple mathematical averages.
3. Higher-priced stocks affect the average more than lower-priced ones.

S&P 500:
1. 500 North American stocks picked by an S&P board.
2. A wider range of sector representation.
3. Calculated by giving weights to each stock according to their market value.
4. Regardless of stock price, a percentage change will be reflected the same on the index.

For more, see: Calculating the Dow Jones Industrial Average, An Introduction to Stock Market Indices, and The ABCs of Stock Indexes.

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