• Illiquid - No easy or short-term path to get out of the investment. An investor will most likely have to wait until the company is able to attract a buy-out or issue an IPO. A liquidity risk premium is a characteristic of the initial investment.
  • Long-term commitment required - Given the nature of the investment and the process of developing a viable business, VC investors must make a long-term commitment - at least three to five years; however, the profit potential is huge. This is mostly due to the time lag between starting a company and bringing it to a buy-out or IPO.
  • Difficulty determining market values - Since these assets do not trade in an active marketplace it's difficult to determine an objective value for the business and the investment.
  • Limited historical risk and return data - This is due to the fact that there are no active trading markets.
  • Entrepreneurial/management mismatches - Brilliant entrepreneurs don't always make the best business executives. Management styles that may have worked perfectly during a business's early stages may be disastrous as the company grows larger.
  • Fund manager incentive mismatches - Managers may be rewarded for the size of their fund, not its performance.
  • Lack of knowledge of the competitors - Because some entrepreneurs are developing new businesses, there is generally little information as to who else is working in their space. As such, competitive valuations are difficult to find in the marketplace.
  • Vintage cycles - The volume of business start-ups is dependent on the economic climate - some years offer more and better opportunities than others. It all depends on the market and who and when firms are entering and exiting the marketplace.
  • Extensive operations analysis and advice may be required - Most often, the start-up's founder and early manager has a specific type of business experience - say, financial expertise - but may lack operational or marketing experience.

Calculating the net present value of a venture capital project
Let's illustrate this with an example:

An investor can invest $2 million in a new project that will last five years and will pay $18 million. His cost of equity for this project is 14%. He also knows that the project could fail at any time and has given the following percentages for the failure rate as follows:

Year 1: 35%, Year 2: 30%, Year 3: 25%, Year 4: 20%, Year 5: 20%

Answer
1) The first step is to determine the probability that the project will work. This equals (1-.35)(1-.30)(1-.25)(1-.20)(1-.20)= .65 x .70 x .75 x .80 x .80=. 22 or a 22% chance of success.

Now if the project fails, the NPV = -$2,000,000 (the amount invested in the project); however, if it works out the NPV of the project if it survives five years = 18,000,000 ÷ (1.14^5) = $9,348,637.

So the expected NPV = (.22 x 9,348,637) + (.78 x -2,000,000) = 2,056,700 - 1,560,000 = 496,700.

Based on these calculations, an investor would take this investment because of the positive expected NPV.

 

Hedge Fund Basics

Related Articles
  1. Investing

    A Look Into The Secrets Of Venture Capitalism

    Venture capitalists own an equity stake in the start-up and have a say in the functioning of the company. Investments are generally made in early stages of a company with long term high growth ...
  2. Small Business

    Does Your Startup Need Venture Capital Money?

    Venture capital funding provides capital to grow a business. However, entrepreneurs will also lose some control over business decisions.
  3. Small Business

    Fed Raising Rates Affects Startup Funding

    With interest rates having nowhere else to go but up, the Fed’s impending interest rate raise will likely begin to reverse the flow of startup funding.
  4. Insights

    5 Ways To Get Venture Capital Funding

    Crowdfunding and online networking are just some of the ways you can find venture capital investors.
  5. Investing

    How Social Venture Capital Is Changing the World

    Learn what social venture capital is and the ways in which it differs from traditional venture capital. Identify two leading social venture capital firms.
  6. Financial Advisor

    A How-To Guide to Being a Venture Capitalist

    So, you want to be a venture capitalist? Here's what it takes (besides capital).
  7. Personal Finance

    Project Manager: Career Path & Qualifications

    Learn more about what project managers job, the qualifications necessary for the position and the most common careers for these professionals.
  8. Insights

    Is Venture Capital Slowing in the U.S.?

    Venture capitalists are more selective in 2016, turning away from U.S. startups in an era of big business and slow growth prospects.
  9. Personal Finance

    Project Manager: Job Description & Average Salary

    Discover more about the specific tasks that project managers are responsible for and the average salary that can be expected in such a position.
Frequently Asked Questions
  1. Who Benefits From Loaning Shares in a Short Sale?

    Does loaning shares in a short sale transaction derive any benefit other than interest on the loan?
  2. What does it mean when a stock trades on the Pink Sheets or the OTCBB?

    The stocks of well-known companies trade on major exchanges but companies must be listed prior to actually trading on an ...
  3. Who are Ford's (F) main suppliers?

    Explore the history and current operations of Ford Motor Co. and discover some of its primary global parts suppliers.
  4. Who are Toyota's (TM) main suppliers?

    Learn which companies make up Toyota's supply chain. The automotive giant provides awards to its largest and most efficient ...
Trading Center