Liabilities
After transfer property is surrendered, the parties involved in the like-kind exchange will need to prepare a written document that identifies the property exchanged within 45 days of the transfer. It must then be transferred within 180 days.

Like-kind favorable tax treatment is barred if you fail to:
• Indentify property in writing 45 days after the transfer
• Receive the exchanged property within 180 days
Boot
In the like-kind exchange, there is often other property or cash that is exchanged in the transaction along with the like-kind property to equal the value of the deal for both parties involved. This other property that is not of the "like-kind," is often referred to as the "boot." The most common form of boot is cash, but many other types of boot are used.

Receiving the "boot" will:

• Result in the recognition of gain if there's a realized gain.
• Result in no recognition if there's a realized loss.
*IMPORTANT*

Three figures are needed to calculate realized gain, recognized gain and substitute basis:

1. Fair market value (FMV) of property received
2. Adjusted basis of property given up
3. Boot (any other property besides the like-kind property)
(Exam will give you several other figures to throw you off track)

Example:
Andy (net worth is \$2 million) is going to exchange a vacant land lot for another tract of land from Joan (like-kind exchange). Andy's lot has an adjusted basis of \$50,000 and a FMV of \$150,000. Joan's lot has an adjusted basis of \$40,000 and a FMV of \$100,000. Joan is also giving the "boot" to Andy in the form of \$30,000 cash to seal the deal.

Calculate the realized gain, recognized gain and substitute basis to Andy if any?

• FMV of property received? \$100,000
• Adjusted basis of property given? \$50,000
• Boot? \$30,000
Step 1

Realized Gain

= [FMV of acquired land + Boot] minus adjusted basis of land given up

= [\$100,000 + \$30,000] - \$50,000

Realized Gain = \$80,000

Step 2

Recognized Gain = boot received OR the realized gain (whichever value is less)

Recognized Gain = \$30,000

Step 3

= FMV of new property – [Realized gain minus Recognized gain]

= \$100,000 minus [\$80,000 - \$30,000]

Special Notes for boot:

• If you transfer mortgaged property, the amount of the mortgage is part of the boot.
• If the boot was received and you incurred a loss on a like-kind exchange, the loss is generally non-deductible (un-like property exchanges might allow the loss deduction).
• The calculation of the boot, gain or loss and basis of property received can all be computed on Form 8824.
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