A dividend is a taxable payment declared by a company's directors and paid to shareholders out of the company's retained earnings. Typically, this is a cash transaction conducted quarterly. However, there is no law stating that a dividend has to be cash. Shares of stock or awards of the company's product are also acceptable to regulators. In fact, there is no law obligating a company to pay any dividend at all. Firms that tend to pay dividends are mostly blue chip and defensive stocks.

Calculating Dividends
Dividends are usually calculated in terms of dollars per share. To calculate your client's total dividend payment, multiply that figure by the number of shares your client holds. If XYZ Corporation declares a \$2 per share annual dividend and your client owns 1,000 shares, his total dividend payment will be \$2,000. Usually, dividends are paid quarterly, so your client can expect four equal payments of \$500 each every three months.

A security is "ex-dividend" if it no longer carries the right to receive the most recently declared dividend. A security attains this status as of its ex-dividend date. By convention, this is two business days before the record date, the date by which an investor must own the share to be entitled to a dividend. If a seller wants to sell the stock and still be able to keep the dividend, he must do so no earlier than two business days before the record date. For transactions during the ex-dividend period, the seller will receive the dividend. On the ex- dividend date the stock price will be adjusted down by the amount of the dividend.

STOCK SPLITS
Companies sometimes change the number of outstanding shares, but for reasons that are tenuous. Stock splits occur when a company believes its share price is too high to be attractive for individual investors to purchase.Â The perception is that if a stock exceeds \$100, people start looking for "cheaper" stocks, so the company mayl split each outstanding \$100 share into two \$50 shares; of course, there is no net difference in value.

The opposite may also happen. If a stock starts trading below \$5, the directors might become concerned that the stock looks "weak" and perform a cosmetic reverse-split, splicing every five \$5 shares together into one \$25 share. Again, there is no real difference in value. A company would reverse split its stock to make it more attractive to institutional investors.Â

See Understanding Stock Splits for more on stock splits.

Preferred Stock

Related Articles
1. Investing

### Dividend Facts You May Not Know

Discover the issues that complicate these payouts for investors.
2. Investing

### Dissecting Declarations, Ex-Dividends and Record Dates

Understanding the dates of the dividend payout process can be tricky. We clear up the confusion.
3. Investing

### Stock Splits: A Closer Look At Its Effects

Most trades, including short sales and options, aren't materially affected by a stock split. Still, it's important for shareholders to understand how these events impact various aspects of investing. ...
4. Investing

### Understanding Taxes on Mutual Funds Dividends

Learn about the basics of mutual fund dividend taxation, including how and why mutual funds pay dividends and when different tax rates apply to dividend income.
5. Investing

### Put Dividends to Work in Your Portfolio

Find out how a company can put its profits directly into your hands.
6. Investing

### If You Had Invested Right After JPMorgan's IPO (JPM)

Find out how much your investment would be worth in 2016 if you had purchased 100 shares during JPMorgan's IPO, including the impact of dividends and splits.
7. Investing

### AAPL: Apple Dividend Analysis

Apple's dividend has had healthy growth ever since its 2012 reinstatement, thanks to Apple's continuously rising revenue, earnings and operating cash flow.

### Understanding How Mutual Funds Pay Dividends

The process by which mutual fund dividends are calculated, distributed and reported is fairly straightforward in most cases. Here's a look.