Any savvy investor knows that you can't put all your eggs in one basket. Even though it may not cut out risk entirely, diversifying your investment portfolio can help you reach your investment goals by maximizing your returns.
There are plenty of different investment vehicles for you to choose from including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, futures, and currencies. These can be broken down even further, grouping together assets that share characteristics—large-cap stocks, financials, government bonds are just a few examples.
And don't forget commodities. These are basic goods that can be transformed into other goods and services. There are a number of different commodity investments for both new and experienced traders. But before you head out to make the leap, here are a few important things you need to know about commodity investing, including the best ones to consider.
- Investing in commodities can provide investors with diversification, a hedge against inflation, and excess positive returns.
- Investors may experience volatility when their investments track a single commodity or one sector of the economy.
- Supply, demand, and geopolitics all affect commodity prices.
- Investors can trade commodity-based futures, stocks, ETFs, or mutual funds, or they can hold physical commodities like gold bullion.
What Is a Commodity Investing?
Commodity trading goes back centuries, even before stocks and bonds exchanged hands. It was a very important business, linking different cultures and people together. From spices and silks in the early days to the exchanges where these assets are now traded, commodities are still a popular investment vehicle.
Investors hoping to get into the commodity market, there are several different ways to do so. Commodity-hungry investors can consider investing directly in the physical commodity, or indirectly by purchasing shares in commodity companies, mutual funds, or exchange traded funds (ETFs).
One of the biggest benefits of investing in commodities is the fact that they tend to protect investors against the effects of inflation. Generally, demand for commodities tends to be high during periods of high inflation, which pushes up prices. It's also a good bet against the U.S. dollar, so when the greenback declines, commodity prices rise.
Aside from the benefits of diversification, there is the potential to maximize returns with commodity investing. Although commodity prices are subject to fluctuations in the market—exchange rates, interest rates, the global economy—global demand is strong. This has an overall positive impact on the stocks of companies that deal specifically with commodities, which can translate to positive returns to investors.
Investors who trade futures should remember that it involves speculation. Futures contracts involve tracking an underlying commodity or index. This could have an impact on the performance of the contract and, thus, give the investor a negative (or positive) difference. Futures also come with their own set of unique risks that must be managed independent of the underlying commodity.
Futures trading can be highly volatile because it involves speculation.
As noted above, there are many different ways investors can choose to invest in commodities. If you have crude oil in mind, it helps to know what helps shape prices, and how you can invest in this commodity.
After production, crude oil is refined into many different products including the gasoline we use to fuel our vehicles. But it goes beyond just gas. Products made from petroleum include plastics, medicines, linoleum, shingles, ink, cosmetics, synthetic fibers, solvents, fertilizer, asphalt and thousands of others.
But what affects prices? Crude oil generally reacts to the laws of supply and demand. The higher the demand, the lower the supply. When that happens, prices tend to rise. When demand wanes, supplies are fairly consistent, leading to a drop in prices. For instance, when gas is in high demand—say, during the summer driving season—the price at the pumps rises, translating into higher crude oil prices.
Similarly, demand from developing nations like China and India—whose economies are still growing—is also pushing up prices. Geopolitics also has a big impact on the price of crude oil. Tensions in the Middle East, where much of the world's oil is produced, can send oil prices skyrocketing.
How to Invest in Crude Oil
Investing in physical crude oil isn't as easy as other commodities—you can't just buy a barrel of oil. As an investor, you may consider futures—the most direct method of owning the commodity outright. But futures can be highly volatile and need a good deal of capital. And they also require a lot of knowledge, so it's not really a good option for novice investors.
Investors may consider purchasing stocks in oil companies, crude oil mutual funds, or even ETFs. The vehicles trade on exchanges just like stocks, so they're easy to come by. The U.S. Oil Fund is one example. It tracks the movement of West Texas Intermediate light, sweet crude oil. Total net assets under management (AUM) in the fund as of Jan. 13, 2020, were $1.4 billion.
Other options include buying shares in mutual funds or energy sector ETFs, which invest directly in oil company stocks. These options tend to come with lower risks because they have more diversified offerings.
The gold market boasts diversity and growth. It's used in jewelry, technology, by central banks, and investors, giving rise to its market at different times within the global economy. The precious metal has traditionally been a safe investment and a hedge against inflation. When the U.S. dollar goes down, you can bet gold prices will go up.
Just like crude oil, when there's an increase in demand, the same happens to the price of gold. Furthermore, prices are affected when central banks—which hold gold—decide to diversify their monetary reserves by buying more gold.
How to Invest In Gold
Unlike crude oil, investors can take possession of the physical commodity. Investors who want to hold the physical commodity can do so by purchasing gold bullion bars or coins. But this means having to pay for a place to store it like a safety deposit box or a vault.
Another option, just like crude, is to go through the futures contract. Contracts require investors to deposit an initial margin. But again, there is a risk to this kind of investment. If the price rises, investors will profit. However, if the price drops, the investor stands to lose their money.
Stocks and ETFs, along with mutual fund options are aplenty. With gold stocks, investors aren't just limited to producers, but also to exploration and mining companies. As usual, it's a good idea for investors to do their homework and see what the operational risks are for each company.
Gold ETFs, on the other hand, provide exposure to the precious metal while tracking its price. For instance, the SPDR Gold Share ETF gives investors exposure to bullion without having to take possession of it.
Base metals are common metals used in commercial and industrial applications, like construction and manufacturing. Aluminum, zinc, and copper are good examples. They are relatively inexpensive, and supplies are generally stable because they're commonly found around the world. But because they are plentiful, prices tend to be much lower than precious metals. However, the increase in the applications of base metals coupled with rising global demand—particularly from China and other developing nations—continues to positively impact prices.
How to Invest in Base Metals
Holding on to aluminum, zinc, and copper may not necessarily be very fruitful, Because of their prices, investors would have to hold copious amounts of these commodities in order to profit. Instead, holding stocks in base metals companies like aluminum company Alcoa or a steel company like U.S. Steel is a great way to get a foot in the door. Furthermore, holding ETFs like the SPDR Metals & Mining ETF provides exposure to companies involved in metals and mining.
The Bottom Line
When deciding to invest in commodities, renowned investor Jim Rogers suggests that three key questions be answered:
- What is the current level of world production?
- What new supply sources are currently coming online?
- Are there potential supplies that are undergoing exploration?
In addition to the commodities mentioned above, other commodities to consider are other precious metals—platinum, palladium, silver—lithium, cotton, and food products such as coffee, corn, oats, wheat, soybeans, and sugar. But as with all investment decisions, though, do your own research or consult with an experienced broker.