The firsts for women in the United States on this list start in the early 19th century. The most recent ones just happened in 2021.
- In the 19th century, women began to break into previously all-male professions, such as medicine and law, and made some early forays into politics.
- Advances in the 20th century included House and Senate seats (some to women of color), a Cabinet appointment, and leading roles in the desegregation and labor movements.
- In the first decades of the 21st century, women have been able to assume notable leadership roles in the federal government and financial sectors.
Mary Kies becomes the first woman to receive a patent, for a method of weaving straw with silk.
The first female doctor in the U.S., Elizabeth Blackwell, graduates from Geneva Medical College in New York. Blackwell went on to found the New York Infirmary for Women and Children, along with an affiliated medical college for women. The infirmary helped expand medical training to women and medical care to the poor.
Dr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler, the first African American woman to be a physician in the United States, graduates from the New England Female Medical College. She relocated to Richmond, Va., after the Civil War, where she worked for the Freedmen’s Bureau on the health needs of recently freed slaves. She later wrote the first medical text by an African American author.
Arabella Mansfield is the first woman admitted to the practice of law in the U.S., in Iowa. Also, Ada H. Kepley becomes the first woman in the United States to graduate from law school.
1872 Presidential Candidate
The first female presidential candidate in the U.S., Victoria Claflin Woodhull, is nominated by the National Radical Reformers party.
Susanna Medora Salter becomes the first woman elected mayor of an American town, in Argonia, Kan.
Dr. Susan La Flesche Picotte becomes the first Native American physician in the United States, graduating from the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania as valedictorian. She later opened a hospital in the Omaha Reservation town of Walthill, Neb.
The first woman is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives: Jeannette Rankin, of Montana.
1932 Senate, Aviation
Hattie Wyatt Caraway, of Arkansas, is the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate.
Amelia Earhart flies solo across the Atlantic.
The first female Cabinet member, Frances Perkins, is appointed secretary of labor by then-President Franklin D. Roosevelt. She helped enact a minimum wage, a limit on employment of children, and unemployment compensation. She also helped draft the Social Security Act.
1955 Bus Desegregation
In March, 15-year-old Claudette Colvin refuses to move to the back of a bus in Birmingham, Ala. Colvin became one of the plaintiffs in the first federal court case to challenge bus segregation. Later that same year, Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat on the bus to a White man in Montgomery, Ala. Her protest sparked the 381-day Montgomery Bus Boycott that ended segregation on buses.
1962 Labor Organizing
Dolores Huerta cofounds the National Farm Workers Association with César Chávez and helped organize the 1965 strike of 5,000 grape workers. She championed women’s issues and worked to elect more Latinos and women to political office during the 1990s and 2000s.
Patsy Mink becomes the first woman of color in Congress, representing Hawaii. She was one of the principal authors of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the landmark legislation that prohibits gender discrimination in education.
1967 Stock Exchange
Muriel Siebert is the first woman to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange. She was later selected to become New York’s first female superintendent of banking in 1977.
Shirley Chisholm is the first Black women elected to Congress. Representing New York for 14 years, she advocated for early education and child welfare policies.
1972 Fortune 500 Company
Katharine Graham becomes the first woman to be CEO of a Fortune 500 company, the Washington Post Company. She had been president of the company, which was owned by her family, since the death of her husband in 1963 and ran it until 1991. She was in charge when The Washington Post published articles based on information from the Pentagon Papers in 1971 and when Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein uncovered the Watergate conspiracy in 1972.
Paula Hawkins of Florida, a Republican, becomes the first woman to be elected to the U.S. Senate without following her husband or father into the job. She was the leading sponsor of the Missing Children’s Act of 1982 and fought for laws to make it easier for women to enter the job market.
1981 Supreme Court
Sandra Day O’Connor is appointed as the first woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. The court overturned state laws designating a husband “head and master” with unilateral control of property owned jointly with his wife. It also ruled that excluding women from the draft is constitutional.
1984 Vice Presidential Candidate
U.S. Rep. Geraldine Ferraro, D-N.Y., becomes the first woman to be nominated to be vice president on a major-party ticket.
U.S. Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen of Florida becomes the first Latina and Cuban American to serve in Congress. A moderate Republican, she was the first female to chair a standing committee, the Committee on Foreign Affairs. In her 30-year political career, she was a member of the LGBT Equality Caucus, the Climate Solutions Caucus, and the Congressional Pro-Life Women’s Caucus.
1997 Secretary of State
Madeleine Albright, who served as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, becomes the first female secretary of state.
U.S. Rep. Nancy Pelosi, D-Calif., becomes the first female speaker of the House.
2009 First Lady, Supreme Court
Michelle Obama becomes the first Black first lady of the United States. Then-President Barack Obama appoints Sonia Sotomayor as the first Latina Supreme Court judge. Sotomayor has built a reputation as an advocate for criminal justice reform and women’s rights.
2014 Federal Reserve
2016 Presidential Candidate
Hillary Rodham Clinton secures the Democratic presidential nomination, becoming the first U.S. woman to lead the ticket of a major party. She loses to Republican Donald Trump in the election.
2018 Stock Exchange
Banker Stacey Cunningham becomes the first female president of the New York Stock Exchange.
2021 Vice President
U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., is the first woman, the first Black American, and the first person of South Asian descent to be vice president of the United States. Before the U.S. Senate, she served as attorney general of California.
2021 Cabinet of Firsts
The Biden administration has appointed a historically diverse group of Americans to the Cabinet and other key posts. These include: Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen; Director of National Intelligence Avril Haines; Deputy Defense Secretary Kathleen Hicks; Director of the Office of Management and Budget Neera Tanden, a Southeast Asian woman; and Interior Secretary Deb Haaland, the first Native American to serve in the U.S. Cabinet. All but Tanden (who withdrew her nomination) were approved by the Senate and took office. Jill Biden, an English professor at Northern Virginia Community College, became the first first lady to keep her day job.