Learn the best ways to manage education debt

If you borrowed money to pay for school, your first question might be how best to repay your student loans. The short answer is that there's no magic bullet, but there are definitely things you can do to make paying back education debt easier. Student loan debt reached an all-time high of $1.57 trillion as of the third quarter of 2022, so you're not alone. A growing segment of the economy is devoted to helping Americans figure out how to pay off student debt, and there's a lot to learn.

Start by reading this overview to understand the basics. Then learn about and consider various options, such as loan consolidation, loan deferment, or forbearance, and think about how you will combine paying student loans with your other financial goals, such as saving for a down payment on a home. There are even plans that allow for loan forgiveness, as you'll see below. Review these nine tips to help you get a handle on your student loans—and even pay them off faster.

Key Takeaways

  • Know how much you owe, to whom it's owed, and your monthly payment and interest rate for each loan. Note that student loan repayment is on hold until 60 days after the Department of Education receives permission to continue the student loan forgiveness program implemented by the White House or 60 days after June 30, 2023, whichever is earlier.
  • Find the best repayment schedule—one that's either fast or slow—for your situation.
  • Consider making payments during your grace period toward the total loan amount or at least the interest due.
  • Look into payment options that can whittle down your debt, such as paying more each month or making bi-monthly payments, setting up autopay, and applying windfalls such as bonuses, tax refunds, or cash birthday gifts to the principal.
  • See if consolidating or refinancing your loans will lower your interest rate and speed up the payoff of your loans.

1. Know What You Owe

The first step in repaying student debt is knowing what you owe. If you haven't done this yet, take the time to figure out:

  • The total amount you owe on all of your loans
  • Which student loan servicers you owe, and the amount of each loan
  • Which of your loans are federal and which are private
  • The minimum monthly payment for each loan
  • The interest rate for each loan

Once you've done this, you can move on to the next step—choosing a repayment plan.

2. Evaluate Student Loan Repayment Options

How you repay your loans depends on the type of loans you owe, how much you can afford to pay, and your money goals.

"Financial goals are different for everyone," says Joseph DePaulo, CEO, and co-founder of College Ave Student Loans. "Some may want a longer repayment plan that allows more flexibility in their monthly budget, while others may opt for a repayment plan that allows them to pay off their student loans as quickly as possible."

There is a range of student loan repayment options to consider. If you need flexibility and owe federal student loans, you might consider an income-driven repayment plan. Several choices calculate your monthly payment based on your income and household size and allow you more time to repay your loans than you'd get on a standard 10-year repayment plan.

Income-driven repayment plans can offer loan forgiveness after a set number of years, but any forgiven loan balance may be treated as taxable income.

On the other hand, if you want to repay your loans as quickly as possible, you might want to stick with a repayment plan with the shortest term. The trade-off is that you'll have a higher monthly payment. The best way to evaluate loan repayment options is to use a loan repayment calculator, such as the one offered by the Department of Education.

3. Use the Grace Period to Your Advantage

Whether you have a grace period and how long it lasts with private student loans depends on the lender. The grace period is the time frame in which you aren't required to make payments on your loans.

With federal student loans, the grace period typically lasts for the first six months after you leave school. With private and unsubsidized federal loans, keep in mind that interest is still charged during your grace period and will be capitalized—added to the total amount you owe—after the grace period ends.

One way to make the grace period work for you is to make advance payments against your loans. Paying down some of the principal means less interest that accrues later. At the very least, try to make interest-only monthly payments in the grace period to cut down on what you owe.

4. Consider Consolidating or Refinancing Student Loans

Consolidating and refinancing offer two ways to streamline student loan repayment. With debt consolidation (or student loan consolidation), you combine multiple loans at an interest rate that reflects the average rate paid across all of your loans. This can be done with federal student loans to merge multiple loans (and monthly loan payments) into one.

You can refinance federal and private loans together into a new private student loan, but doing so will cause you to lose certain protections on your federal loans, such as deferment and forbearance periods.

Refinancing is a little different—you're taking out a new loan to pay off the old loans, so you still end up with one monthly payment. But if that new loan has a lower interest rate compared to the average rate you were paying across the old loans, you could save some money—provided you don't extend the term. One thing to note about refinancing private student loans is that you'll need good credit to qualify, which may necessitate bringing a cosigner on board.

Be very careful to avoid student loan scams, which are particularly prevalent if you try to refinance your loans or investigate loan forgiveness.

5. Pay Your Loans Automatically

Late payments could hurt your credit score. Scheduling your loan payments to be deducted from your checking account automatically each month means you don't have to worry about paying late or damaging your credit.

You could also score some interest rate savings if your lender offers a rate discount for using autopay—federal loan servicers and many private lenders do. The discount may only be a quarter of a percentage point, but that can make a difference in how quickly you pay off the loans over time.

6. Pay Extra and Be Consistent

One thing that can slow down your student loan payoff is paying only the minimum due. Joshua Hastings, the founder of the personal finance blog Money Life Wax, was able to pay off $180,000 in student loans over a three-year period by taking a focused approach, which included paying extra on his loans every month.

If you're able to pay extra, you may want to target one loan at a time while paying the minimum on everything else. The question is, do you use the debt snowball method or the debt avalanche?

"When deciding which student loan to pay off first, it's best to go with the one that can free up cash flow quickly. That way you can have more money to throw at the next loan," Hastings says. "As you grow your cash flow, it's a good idea to transition to the high-interest loans."

Student loan repayment is on hold until the Department of Education receives permission to implement the proposed student loan forgiveness program introduced by President Biden in August 2022. The repayment hold is in place until 60 days after the department receives permission or 60 days after June 30, 2023, whichever is earlier.

7. Apply 'Found Money' to Loan Balances

Found money doesn't necessarily mean the change you find between your couch cushions. But it does include money that isn't budgeted for as part of your monthly income. Using found money is another way to gain traction with student loan repayment. This includes:

  • Tax refunds
  • Rebates
  • Annual salary bonuses
  • Income earned from a side job
  • Cash gifts you receive for birthdays or holidays

You can apply these amounts to your loan principal to take out a chunk of your debt in one go. Other opportunities to use found money to pay down loans quickly include inheriting money from relatives or receiving a settlement as part of a lawsuit.

8. Look Into Forgiveness and Reimbursement Programs

Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) is designed to offer student debt relief for students who pursue careers in public service. You make a set number of payments while working in a public service job, and the remainder is forgiven.

If you don't qualify for loan forgiveness, you may be able to get help with your student loans through your employer. Talk to your HR department about whether student loan reimbursement is available as an employee benefit and what you need to do to qualify.

In some circumstances, a debt relief company can assist you in negotiating lower payments or even partial debt reduction.

9. Try Bi-weekly Payments

Another method to pay off student loans is switching from monthly to bi-weekly payments. Similar to making bi-weekly mortgage payments, this tactic means you'll have to make one extra loan payment per year. You'll need to talk to your loan servicer to find out whether automatic bi-weekly payments are an option, but if not, you may be able to make additional principal payments at any time through your online account access.

The upside of making extra bi-weekly payments yourself versus automatically is that you can make the payments when it fits your budget and skip them if there's a month when you don't have the extra cash.

Is It Smart to Pay Off Student Loans Early?

Yes, if you can pay off your student loans early, it is a smart decision. Paying off your loans early means they will cost less because you'll have to pay less interest over a shorter period. Also, having less debt can help in other situations, such as applying for a mortgage.

How Long Does It Take To Pay Off Your Student Loans?

The time it takes to pay off student loans will vary for every individual as it depends on the amount of the loans, the salary, expenses, and other financial aspects of the individual. Typically it takes 10 to 30 years to pay off student loans. The Standard Repayment Plan for federal loans is 10 years.

What Qualifies for Biden's Student Loan Forgiveness?

To qualify for Biden's student loan forgiveness, you have to earn an income of less than $125,000 as an individual or $250,000 as a couple. If you qualified for that and had a Pell Grant at school, you are eligible for debt cancellation of up to $20,000. If you didn't have a Pell Grant at school, you are eligible for debt cancellation of up to $10,000. Keep in mind, though, that the plan was blocked following orders from federal courts on Nov. 11, 2022. The Department of Education has paused student loan payments until 60 days after it is allowed to implement the forgiveness program or 60 days after June 30, 2023, whichever comes first.

The Bottom Line

Tackling your student loans proactively is key to paying them off sooner rather than later. There are plenty of ways to manage your debt more effectively, but the worst thing you can do is nothing.

"If you find you're having difficulty affording your federal or private student loan payments, don't ignore the problem or assume there are no options," DePaulo says. "Reach out to your loan servicers to discuss your situation and try to create a plan to get back on track."

Article Sources
Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy.
  1. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. "Total Household Debt Reaches $16.51 trillion in Q3 2022; Mortgage and Auto Loan Originations Decline."

  2. Internal Revenue Service. "Topic No. 431 Canceled Debt – Is It Taxable or Not?"

  3. Federal Student Aid. "Income-Driven Repayment Plans."

  4. Federal Student Aid. "Loan Simulator."

  5. Federal Student Aid. "Student Loan Repayment."

  6. Federal Student Aid. "Federal Interest Rates and Fees: Understand How Interest Is Calculated and What Fees Are Associated with Your Federal Student Loan."

  7. Federal Student Aid. "Should I Refinance My Federal Student Loans into a Private Loan?"

  8. Money Life Wax. "How This Couple Was Able to Pay Off $180,000 in Student Loans in 36 Months."

  9. Federal Student Aid. "Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF)."

  10. Federal Student Aid. "The Standard Repayment Plan Is the Basic Repayment Plan for Loans From the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program and Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program."

  11. The White House. "Fact Sheet: President Biden Announces Student Loan Relief for Borrowers Who Need It Most."

  12. U.S. Department of Education. "Biden-Harris Administration Continues Fight for Student Debt Relief for Millions of Borrowers, Extends Student Loan Repayment Pause."

Take the Next Step to Invest
×
The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where listings appear. Investopedia does not include all offers available in the marketplace.
Service
Name
Description