Economics

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  1. What are the different ways that utility is measured in economics?

    Although it is difficult to measure, economists try to quantify utility in two different ways: cardinal utility and ordinal ...
  2. What is the difference between fiat money and representative money?

    Fiat money is physical money (paper money and coins), while representative money is something that represents intent to pay ...
  3. How do I calculate the standard error using Matlab?

    The equation for the standard error of the mean is the sample standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample ...
  4. Monetary Policy

    Monetary policy: Actions of a central bank or other committees that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, ...
  5. October Effect

    The October effect is a theory that stocks tend to decline during the month of October.
  6. How important are seasonal trends in the automotive sector?

    The automotive industry has some definite seasonal trends, with peak demand occurring in the spring and fall, and lowest ...
  7. What is RiskMetrics in Value at Risk (VaR)?

    The aim of RiskMetrics is promoting and improving the transparency of market risks, creating a benchmark for measuring risk ...
  8. What are the primary sources of market risk?

    There are four primary sources of risk that affect the overall market: interest rate risk, equity price risk, foreign exchange ...
  9. How much revenue in the airline industry comes from business travelers compared to leisure travelers?

    Business travelers and high-end travelers bring substantial revenue to airlines by purchasing additional services and using ...
  10. What are Some Advantages of Raising Capital Through Private Placement?

    Understand how a business can raise capital through private placement and the benefits business owners receive through this ...
  11. Brexit

    Brexit refers to Britain's leaving the European Union, which is slated to happen at the end of March 2019.
  12. Debt Versus Deficit: Understanding the Differences

    Gain an understanding how deficit differs from debt, and how they are related.
  13. What is the role of deficit spending in fiscal policy?

    Read about the role deficit spending can play in a government's fiscal policy, and learn why economists are torn about the ...
  14. What determines oil prices?

    Understand the economic factors and other market forces that impact oil prices.
  15. What is backtesting in Value at Risk (VaR)?

    The value at risk is a statistical risk management technique that monitors and quantifies the risk level associated with ...
  16. Why should sunk costs be ignored in future decision making?

    Decision makers should base strategies on how to proceed with business or investment activities on future costs, not sunk ...
  17. What's the difference between monopoly and monopsony?

    A monopoly exists when a single organization is the sole supplier of a commodity, whereas a monopsony controls the market ...
  18. What is an endorsement in blank on a bill of lading?

    A blank endorsement on a bill of lading is an indication that there is no specified recipient of the endorsed bill.
  19. What's the difference between the income effect and the price effect?

    The price effect is the impact on the market based on how the consumer is spending money as a result of the income effect.
  20. How does aggregate demand affect price level?

    Prices coordinate supply and demand, and they are also determined by it; there is no clean, direct and one-dimensional link ...
  21. How does fiscal policy impact the budget deficit?

    Fiscal policy refers to any uses of the government budget to affect the economy including government spending and levied ...
  22. What do the bid and ask prices represent on a stock quote?

    The bid and ask prices are stock market terms representing the supply, or the shareholder, and demand, or investor, for a ...
  23. Safety-First Rule

    The safety-first rule is a quantitative portfolio strategy that tries to minimize the chance of receiving negative returns. ...
  24. SEC Form 17-H

    SEC Form 17-H is a risk-assessment report that all broker-dealers must file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
  25. What are the differences between the Federal Funds Rate and LIBOR?

    The Federal Funds Rate and the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) are the two most prominently featured interest rates ...
  26. What are the most famous monopolies?

    Without free market competition, the most famous monopolies in American history effectively set the national price for steel, ...
  27. Why do analysts sometimes give an overweight recommendation on a stock?

    If analysts give a stock an overweight rating, they expect the stock to outperform its industry in the market.
  28. How does a high discount rate affect the economy?

    A high discount rate causes loans to be more expensive and encourages people to save more money. This could be considered ...
  29. What is the difference between research and development and product development?

    Research and development is the conception phase of a product, while product development is the process of designing, creating, ...
  30. What are some examples of moral hazard in the business world?

    Moral hazard occurs when one party to an agreement engages in risky behavior because it knows the other party bears the consequences ...
  31. How can a change in fiscal policy have a multiplier effect on the economy?

    A change in fiscal policy has a multiplier effect on the economy because fiscal policy affects spending, consumption, and ...
  32. Negative Option Deals

    Negative option deals are a dubious business practice that typically involves supplying a new product or service on a recurring ...
  33. What is the difference between a bill of lading and a bill of exchange?

    A bill of exchange is a documentation of payment. On the other hand, a bill of lading is a receipt detailing the goods being ...
  34. Why is Switzerland considered a tax haven?

    Although Switzerland is no longer a place to “hide” money, it still offers the wealthy some benefits for living and keeping ...
  35. How can the problem of asymmetric information be overcome?

    Asymmetric information is inherent in most markets. Markets compensate for this by developing agency relationships to produce ...
  36. Is industrialization good for the economy?

    Industrialization is the process by which an economy moves from agrarian production to mass-produced, technologically-advanced ...
  37. When is a buy limit order executed?

    A buy limit order is only executed when the asking price is at or below the limit price specified in the order.
  38. Why do commercial banks borrow from the Federal Reserve?

    Commercial banks borrow from the Federal Reserve primarily to meet reserve requirements when their cash on hand is low before ...
  39. Halloween Strategy

    Halloween strategy is a trading tactic, which posits that stocks perform better between October 31 and May 1 than they do ...
  40. What The Unemployment Rate Doesn't Tell Us

    Low unemployment sounds like a good thing right? But that's not the whole story.
  41. Out Trade

    An out trade is a trade that cannot be placed by a clearing house because the trade data submitted by the counter parties ...
  42. Electronic Payments Network (EPN)

    The Electronic Payments Network (EPN) is one of two clearing houses in the United States that process all automated clearing ...
  43. Stock Symbol (Ticker)

    A stock symbol is a unique series of letters assigned to a security for trading purposes.
  44. North American Free Trade Agreement - NAFTA

    The North American Free Trade Agreement was implemented in 1994 to encourage trade between the United States, Mexico and ...
  45. External Claim

    An external claim is a claim against an individual that does not arise out of any relationship he or she may have to a business ...
  46. Peace Dividend

    Peace dividend refers to the economic benefits that result from a country reallocating its defense spending to civilian projects ...
  47. Asset Stripper

    An asset stripper purchases a company and intends to divide the corporation up into its parts and sell them for profit.
  48. Boston Options Exchange (BOX)

    The Boston Options Exchange (BOX) is an options exchange started in 2002 that is operated by the TMX Group.
  49. E

    "E" was a formerly used character added to NASDAQ stock symbols that were delinquent in regulatory filings.
  50. Heath-Jarrow-Morton Model - HJM Model

    A Heath-Jarrow-Morton Model is used to model forward interest rates that are then used to find the theoretical value of interest ...
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