- A Roth IRA is a tax-advantaged way to save for retirement.
- One day, your earnings will exceed your annual contributions because of the magic of compounding.
- When you save for retirement in your Roth IRA account, it's important to work toward a specific investment goal rather than just maximizing your annual contributions in order to minimize your tax bill.
When you save for retirement in your Roth account, it's important to work toward a specific investment goal rather than just maximizing your yearly contributions in order to minimize your tax bill. When you save and invest, you should have a target in mind and a portfolio designed to ensure your future financial health. Until you establish such a goal, there is no objective way to know if you are saving enough.
The percentage of Americans who have set specific savings goals for the next five to 10 years.
If you have not yet determined an investment goal, here is a formula for estimating how much you'll need in your nest egg to fund the retirement lifestyle you want.
Step 1: Estimate the Income You'll Need in Retirement
This step is tricky because you are estimating expense levels for a life you are not yet living. To keep it simple, many financial planners recommend using 80% of your current income as a yardstick. For our example, we'll assume an income of $10,000 per month, which at 80% is $8,000, or $96,000 per year.
Step 2: Subtract Social Security and Pension Benefits
You can find this information in your Social Security Earnings Record (viewable on the agency's website) and your company's human resources department. Subtract these benefits from your expected monthly retirement income from Step 1. If you have other sources of guaranteed income (such as monthly annuity payments), subtract those, too.
For our example, we assume monthly Social Security and pension income will be $4,000 per month. This reduces the income needed at retirement to $4,000 per month, or $48,000 per year.
Step 3: Factor in Time Horizons
There are three numbers to be concerned with here: your current age, your expected retirement age, and the number of years you expect to live after you leave work. You can use life expectancy charts to determine how long you can expect to live as a retiree, but it can be just as easy to consider the longevity of your close relatives, and then round up. For our example, we'll assume a current age of 35, a retirement age of 65, and that you’ll live as a retiree for 20 years.
Step 4: Determine the Return on Your Retirement Assets
Of course, there is no way to precisely calculate the return on investment (ROI) for your savings, but the long-term ROI in the stock market is about 8%. You can expect a lower rate of return on your retirement assets once you retire since, in all probability, your investments will be relatively conservative. For our example, we assume an ROI of 8% until retirement, and 5% after that.
Step 5: Account for Inflation
It is a good idea to account for inflation as it can have a major effect on the outcome of your plans. For our example, we assume a 3% inflation rate.
Step 6: Put It All Together
Here's what we have so far:
- Required yearly retirement income: $48,000
- Current age, 35; retirement age, 65; and years in retirement, 20
- Rate of return: 8% before retirement; 5% during retirement
- Annual expected inflation rate: 3%
You can use an online calculator to do the math. Using the figures from our example, you will need to accumulate approximately $1.97 million to retire at age 65 with 80% of your current income.
Now you have a goal to aim for with your retirement investments: $1.97 million. When you make contributions, you will know how close you are to reaching your goal. Saving for retirement can seem like a daunting task. You have to be incredibly disciplined with your savings month after month, and year after year, until you hit retirement age. You also need the willpower to avoid jumping into hot stocks or risky sectors of the market and, instead, continue to maintain your portfolio diversification.
Planning to never retire is not a realistic plan because you may be forced into retirement unexpectedly.
As difficult as saving for retirement can be, there’s one part of retirement saving that’s on your side: compound interest.
Your Retirement Ally: Compound Interest
Even if you are contributing the max to your Roth IRA and are incredibly disciplined in doing so year after year, your contributions alone will not be enough to build that retirement nest egg. That’s why compound interest is so important.
Compound interest is the interest that accrues on your contributions and the accumulated interest of that principal. In short, it's interest on the interest you've earned in the past. Compounding interest allows an invested sum to grow at a faster rate than simple interest, which is calculated on the principal alone.
Compound Interest for Retirement Accounts
Let's look at an example using $12,000 in annual contributions (we assume that you and your spouse each contribute $6,000 a year to a Roth IRA).
If your $12,000 deposit earns 8%, the simple interest for that year would be $960. Your accounts would collectively end the year at $12,960. The next year, the combined balance would be $25,920.
Let's say your Roth IRA accounts earn interest at an 8% compounded rate. At the end of the first year, you would have the same balance as if you earned simple interest: $12,960.
But at the end of year two, instead of $25,920, you would have $26,957 because of the extra interest you've earned on the first year's interest. Not a huge difference yet, but still more than the simple interest would earn.
Of course, the more years that pass, the greater the effect of compounding. Here's what happens to your earnings over the next five years:
- Year 1: $960
- Year 2: $2,957
- Year 3: $6,073
- Year 4: $10,399
- Year 5: $16,031
The Long-Term Impact of Compound Interest
In Year 5, your account growth suddenly exceeds your annual contributions. As your account continues to grow, that increase gets greater and greater, eventually adding $67,746 to your account in Year 10. That's 564% more than your annual contribution.
Granted, this is based on a fixed rate of return of 8% for 10 years in a row. In real life, the stock market and your investments will not see such steady returns. Some years you'll see 25% growth, while others could be 15% losses. Still, 8% is the long-term ROI in the stock market, so it's a reasonable average to target.
Over time, your contributions will exceed what you put into the account on an annual basis. But just because your account grows more than $12,000 in a given year doesn’t mean you should stop making contributions. A key component of growth is having a large contribution base. So stay dedicated and keep funding the account every year (to the maximum amount if possible).
Develop a Well-Rounded Investment Plan
Will a Roth IRA be sufficient for you to build your $1.97 million nest egg? Probably not, since you can only contribute up to $6,000 a year, or $7,000 if you're over 50, which are the contribution maximums for 2020 and 2021. Although the IRS periodically adjusts them for inflation, it gives you a sense of the general ballpark.
Roth Income Limitations
Also, the Roth IRA has income limitations, which means if you earn over the limit, you may not be able to contribute to a Roth, or your contributions could be limited or phased out entirely. The phased-out income limitations also depend on your tax filing status.
For the 2020 tax year, if your tax filing status is single, you can not contribute to a Roth IRA if you earn more than $139,000. The income phase-out range for contributions is $124,000 to $139,000.
For 2021, the income phase-out range for singles is $125,000 to $140,000. In other words, contributions can not be made to a Roth if your income exceeds $139,000 in 2020 and $140,000 in 2021.
For married couples who file a joint tax return, the Roth income phase-out range for 2020 is $196,000 to $206,000, and for 2021, it's $198,000 to $208,000. In other words, if you make more than $206,000 in 2020 and $208,000 in 2021 as a married couple filing jointly, you can't contribute to a Roth.
A Roth IRA has valuable tax advantages such as tax-free withdrawals in retirement and no required minimum distributions (RMDs). But this is only one part of a well-rounded retirement savings plan. If you have a 401(k) with your employer, that is another good option, particularly if your employer offers matching contributions.
You only get one shot at retirement planning, so it can be helpful to work with a qualified financial planner or advisor. An advisor will help you set goals for retirement and develop a plan to reach them.