How Your Roth IRA Contribution Limit Is Calculated
The primary factors for determining your contribution limit are your filing status and modified adjusted gross income (MAGI), which is your income after considering certain allowable deductions and tax penalties. Based on these two factors, you may be eligible to contribute the max, a reduced amount, or nothing at all.
Contributions to a Roth account are made post-tax, but all earnings grow tax-free. Withdrawals of the contributions made during retirement are made tax-free. However, only earned income can be contributed to a Roth individual retirement account (Roth IRA).
Also, contributions to Roth IRAs are limited and can be reduced or phased out, depending on your annual income.
- The Roth individual retirement account (Roth IRA) has a contribution limit, which is $6,000 in 2022—or $7,000 if you are age 50 or older.
- This limit applies across all IRAs.
- Depending on your filing status and modified adjusted gross income (MAGI), you may be eligible to contribute the max, a reduced amount, or nothing at all.
- Roth IRA contributions are made with after-tax dollars and are not tax-deductible.
- However, lower-income taxpayers who contribute to a Roth IRA may be eligible for the saver’s credit.
The table below highlights the maximum amount of income that you can earn before being ineligible to contribute to a Roth and the income phaseout ranges where your contributions are reduced.
|2022 Roth IRA Income Limits|
|Filing Status||2022 Modified AGI||Contribution Limit|
|Married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er)||Less than $204,000||$6,000 ($7,000 if you’re age 50 or older)|
|$204,000 to $214,000||Reduced|
|$214,000 or more||Not eligible|
|Single, head of household, or married filing separately (and you didn’t live with your spouse at any time during the year)||Less than $129,000||$6,000 ($7,000 if you’re age 50 or older)|
|$129,000 to $144,000||Reduced|
|$144,000 or more||Not eligible|
|Married filing separately (if you lived with your spouse at any time during the year)||Less than $10,000||Reduced|
|$10,000 or more||Not eligible|
Example of How a Reduced Limit Is Calculated
Below is an example of how the reduced limit is calculated for someone who is filing as single, head of household, or married and filing separately (and you didn’t live with your spouse at any time during the year):
- Start with your modified 2022 AGI.
- Subtract $129,000 (based on tax filing status).
- Divide the result by $15,000.
- Multiply by your maximum contribution limit.
- Subtract the result of #4 from the maximum contribution limit.
Please note that the divisor (in step #3) of $15,000 is set by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), depending on your tax filing status. If your return is filed as married filing jointly or as a widow/widower, then you will use $10,000 as the divisor.
|Example Scenario 2022|
- 2022 MAGI: $132,000
- $132,000 - $129,000 = $3,000
- $3000 / $15,000 = 0.2
- 0.2 * $6,000 = $1,200
- $6,000 - $1,200 = $4,800
Using the example information above, the calculated reduced limit would be $4,800 for this individual.
The contribution deadline for Roth IRAs for a particular tax year is usually the filing deadline for that year. So, for your 2021 income taxes, you can contribute to your Roth IRA up until April 15, 2022.
Details of Roth IRA Contributions
The Roth IRA has contribution limits, which are $6,000 for 2022. If you’re age 50 or older, you can contribute an additional $1,000 as a catch-up contribution in 2022. Contributions, not earnings, can be withdrawn tax-free at any time.
It’s worth noting that an investor can have both a Roth and a traditional IRA and contribute to both, but the contribution limits apply across all IRAs. For example, suppose an investor contributes $4,000 to a Roth IRA. In that case, that same investor could contribute $2,000 to their traditional IRA in that same year (assuming that their contributions are not limited by their MAGI). If that taxpayer is age 50 or older, they could contribute an additional $1,000.
Age Contribution Limits
There is no age limit for making contributions to an IRA. There has never been an age limit on Roth IRAs, but traditional IRA contributions used to have an age limit of 70½. That limit was removed with the passage of the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019.
With a traditional IRA, your ability to participate in a qualified retirement plan (QRP), such as a 401(k), will dictate if and how much you can contribute to the IRA. With a Roth IRA, participation in a QRP has no bearing.
Roth IRA Contributions and the Saver’s Credit
This tax break allows for a tax credit of 10% to 50% for the amount contributed to a Roth IRA. Depending on the filing status, adjusted gross income (AGI), and Roth IRA contribution, the credit can be up to $2,000.
For tax year 2022, the top-end income limits are $68,000 for those married filing jointly, $51,000 for head-of-household filers, and $34,000 for single taxpayers.
Withdrawals and the CARES Act
The passage of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act in March 2020 allowed for the withdrawal of up to $100,000 from Roth or traditional IRAs without having to pay the 10% early withdrawal fee.
This hardship withdrawal was allowed for those economically affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The account holder has three years to pay taxes owed on withdrawals vs. having to pay them in the current year. In addition, the withdrawals can be repaid and no taxes owed. The repayment amount doesn’t count toward the contribution limit.
Roth IRA Alternatives
If you are ineligible for a Roth IRA, you may still be able to find tax-exempt options to generate retirement income. If your company offers a Roth 401(k) option, this is something to consider.
If not, you can look to permanent life insurance products like whole life that contain a tax-advantaged cash accumulation component. This can be drawn down during retirement, or rolled into an annuity.
Municipal bonds are another tax-exempt strategy, but to gain the maximum tax advantage you must be a resident of the place where they are issued. Moreover, municipal bonds often pay tax-equivalent yields similar to or lower than taxable bonds.
What Is Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI)?
Modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) is your adjusted gross income (AGI) minus certain allowable deductions and tax penalties. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) uses your MAGI to determine whether you qualify for certain tax benefits. For example, your MAGI must be below specified limits, set by the IRS, to contribute to a Roth individual retirement account (Roth IRA).
Can You Be Too Old to Contribute to a Roth IRA?
There is no age limit to opening and contributing to a Roth IRA. There used to be an age limit of 70½ for contributing to a traditional IRA, but that was done away with by the Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019.
How Much Can You Contribute to a Roth IRA?
For the 2022 tax year, you can contribute up to $6,000, or $7,000 if you are 50 or older. However, your tax filing status and MAGI may limit how much you can contribute.
Can I Contribute to Both a Roth and Traditional IRA?
Yes, you can keep and contribute to both a Roth and Traditional IRA, but you cannot exceed the annual contribution limit between the two accounts. For instance, if the annual limit is $6,000 you can contribute $3,000 to each account.
Internal Revenue Service. “Roth IRAs.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Traditional and Roth IRAs.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Amount of Roth IRA Contributions That You Can Make for 2022.”
Internal Revenue Service. “IRS Announces 401(k) Limit Increases to $20,500.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Amount of Roth IRA Contributions That You Can Make for 2021.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Income Ranges for Determining IRA Eligibility Change for 2021.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Publication 590-A: Contributions to Individual Retirement Arrangements,” Page 42.
Internal Revenue Service. “Retirement Topics — IRA Contribution Limits.”
Internal Revenue Service. “Retirement Savings Contributions Credit (Saver’s Credit).”
Internal Revenue Service. “Relief for Taxpayers Affected by COVID-19 Who Take Distributions or Loans from Retirement Plans.”
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