America has a long history of racism, from the era of slavery to the historic march for civil rights to the current Black Lives Matter movement. Yet while significant progress has been made over the last century, minority groups are still underrepresented in the workplace, especially in high-level positions. This is even more apparent in the higher education industry, where as of 2018 Whites make up 68% of faculty.
The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education provides a timeline, stretching back to the end of the 18th century when John Chavis, a Presbyterian minister and teacher, became the first Black person to attend college (now Washington and Lee) in 1799. It wasn’t until 24 years later that Alexander Lucius Twilight became the first person known to be African American to earn a degree (from Middlebury College). By 1900 more than 2,000 African Americans had earned college degrees. Around 360 of these were obtained from White institutions. Today, education is seen as the most direct path to the middle class. Yet while the student population became more diverse, the faculty remained White, even at Black colleges.
Growth was equally slow for Black representation in academic leadership. Henry Martin Freeman became the first Black college president in 1856 (at what is now Avery College). The first Black academic to be named president of a predominantly white school was Patrick Francis Healy in 1874, at Georgetown University. The Journal notes that he had passed for White. It wasn't until 1969 that Clifton R. Wharton Jr. became the second Black president of a predominantly White University, Michigan State.
According to the Pew Research Center, Latinx, Black, and Asian American faculty made up 5%, 6% and 11%, respectively, of faculty in 2017. Members of these and other minority groups are even more rare in academic leadership. This is despite the fact that the percentage of students from minority communities has been growing. As more minority students enroll in colleges, the need for a diverse faculty grows. Diversity among academic leadership is crucial for effective management of the institution and the ability to relate to and educate the student body.
- Top academic leadership positions are typically held by White men. Women of color are the most underrepresented group.
- Per the most recent data from the Pew Research Center, Whites made up around three-quarters of the faculty at colleges and universities.
- The racial gap between faculty and students at higher education institutions continues to widen.
Minorities Are Underrepresented in Full-Time Faculty Positions
Black professionals make up a mere 0.8% of Fortune 500 CEOs and just 3.2% of all executive and senior-level officials and managers, according to a 2019 study from the Center for Talent and Innovation, now known as Coqual. The higher education industry is not much better; minorities make up only 14% of administrators, according to 2016 figures from the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources (CUPA-HR).
Full-time Black and Latinx faculty are represented similarly in colleges and universities. According to data from the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2018 these groups combined made up just 12% of professors, associate professors, assistant professors, instructors, and lecturers. Whites made up the largest portion of all positions and represented 80% of full-time professors.
Administrative positions in higher education are also dominated by Whites. In 2017 minority-group academics made up just over 10% college provosts/chief academic affairs officers. Meantime, 83% of college presidents across all types of postsecondary education institutions were White. Black college presidents had the next highest representation (8%), followed by Latinx presidents (4%). In 35 years, the number has grown exceedingly slowly; 92% of college presidents were White in 1986.
Racial Wage Gaps in Higher Education
According to PayScale.com, the controlled racial wage gap is defined as “a comparison of pay between white men and people of color who have the same job and qualifications.” Even in today’s diverse workforce, a racial wage gap exists across industries.
In the U.S. workforce Asian workers are the highest paid group, earning $1.023 for every $1.00 a White man earns. The next highly paid group is Pacific Islanders, followed by American Indian, White, Latinx, and Black workers.
There is a similar pattern within higher education administrators: White, Latinx, and Black administrators are paid less than Asian American administrators who make up 2% of college administrative positions and earn significantly more than Latinx, White, and Black administrators. However, overall the incomes of these other three groups are very close. "When it comes to salaries, minority administrators as a whole are paid equitably in relation to their non-minority (White) colleagues. In other words, minority pay matches non-minority pay dollar for dollar. What’s more, this salary parity has remained fairly steady for the past 15 years," reports a 2017 study from the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources.
Women of Color
Women of color are the least represented and lowest paid group in both the overall workforce and in the higher education industry. This group is susceptible to a greater bias because of the intersectionality of their identities. For example, women face discrimination in the workplace, as do Black people, so a Black woman is very likely to experience bias due to both issues.
Black women earn just $0.65 for every dollar a White man earns, while Latinx women earn $0.58, according to 2015 Pew Research study. Black men earn $0.72, Latinx men get $0.69, and White women earn $0.82. The gap narrows for women of color who work in staff, faculty, administrative, and professional positions. In fact, there is a greater wage gap for White women who are college administrators than for women of color in the same role.
Racial Gaps Between Faculty and Students
In recent years colleges and universities have begun to recognize the importance of a diverse student body, taking both income and race into consideration. Stories of unfair admissions practices made headlines, including the alleged discrimination against Asian-American applicants to Harvard and celebrities buying their way into top colleges. Although there is still a long way to go before true diversity is achieved, colleges and universities have made some progress.
Today the focus is shifting toward the demographic composition of the faculty. As college students become more diverse, the staff and administration remain largely White. For example, a 2017 Pew Research Study found that 20% of college students were Latinx, compared with just 5% of faculty. Forty-five percent of undergraduate students were minorities, compared with only 24% of faculty.
The racial gap has narrowed slightly over the last two decades (1997–2017) when looking at nonwhites as a whole. In 1997 minority groups made up 28% of students and 14% of faculty. However, Black and Latinx representation in faculty barely moved. Blacks increased from 5% to 6%, and Latinx grew from 3% to 5%.
The Bottom Line
Having diverse leadership in higher education is important for the institution and the student body. Having minority representation in faculty, administration, and staff will improve student engagement and retention, as well as classroom discussions, and help prepare students for the workforce. Racial gaps will not improve overnight, but there are steps that colleges and universities can take to help speed up the process:
- Evaluate existing pay and representation to identify any gaps.
- When competing for minority candidates ensure fair market wages and competitive salaries.
- Examine employee turnover, age, and experience of existing minority employees to identify those who can potentially move up the career track.
Higher education has come a long way since segregation and all-male colleges. Taking steps today will help institutions narrow the pay and representation gaps, creating a more equitable environment for all students, faculty, staff, and administrators.