There are limits to almost everything in life, including how much you can borrow on student loans. Student loan limits are based on a variety of factors, including the type of loan (federal or private), your year in school, and how much it costs to attend your school of choice.
It’s important to keep in mind that the maximum amount you can borrow isn’t necessarily the amount you should borrow. You should only borrow as much as you can expect to be able to pay back under the terms of the loan—and the interest rate is part of that calculation. All this makes for a tricky landscape, which starts with knowing what’s available.
Note that interest on student loans from federal agencies has been indefinitely suspended during the coronavirus crisis by President Trump, as of March 13, 2020.
- The four main types of student loans are Federal Direct Subsidized, Federal Direct Unsubsidized, Federal Direct PLUS, and private.
- Loan limits are based on type of loan, year in school, and cost of attendance.
- Annual and cumulative limits both impact the amount you can borrow.
- The amount your parents borrow is not subtracted from your annual or aggregate limits.
- Eligibility varies by loan type and is also an important factor in choice of a loan.
How Much Can You Borrow?
In addition to private loans, there are three main types of federal student loans: Direct Subsidized, Direct Unsubsidized, and Direct PLUS. First, consider a Direct Subsidized Loan. Subsidized federal loans are simple to obtain, usually less expensive than PLUS or private loans, don’t require a credit check or cosigner, and have built-in protections and repayment options that unsubsidized, PLUS, and private loans don't have. Subsidized federal loans are available for undergraduate students only. Unsubsidized federal loans can be taken out by both undergrads and graduate/professional students.
Federal Direct Student Loans
The table below shows the breakdown of the maximum amount you can borrow when taking out Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized student loans. Note that the total for each year, and cumulatively, includes both subsidized and unsubsidized federal loans. If, for example, your subsidized loan total in year one as a dependent undergrad is $3,500, you are limited to $2,000 in unsubsidized loans for that year. If your subsidized total is less than $3,500, the difference between that and $5,500 can be unsubsidized loans.
The amount you can borrow each year and cumulatively as an undergrad is also affected by your parents’ eligibility to help you by taking out a Direct PLUS loan. If they are eligible, the amount you can borrow in your own name is less. If they are ineligible, due to poor credit, for example, you can borrow more. Amounts for independent undergrads also reflect lack of parent support—as do amounts for graduate and professional students, who are always considered to be independent.
|Dependent Undergrads (parents eligible for PLUS loans)||Subsidized||Total|
|Year 3 and above||$5,500||$7,500|
|Dependent Undergrads (parents not eligible for PLUS loans)
& Independent Undergrads
|Year 3 and above||$5,500||$12,500|
The aggregate totals for each class of borrower includes all unpaid loan balances for all federal student loans taken. This includes subsidized and unsubsidized FFEL (Stafford) loans, which are no longer available, as well as subsidized graduate level loans dispersed before July 1, 2012.
To apply for federal student loans, you'll need to submit the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA).
Federal Direct PLUS Loans
Federal Direct PLUS loans are available to parents of dependent undergraduate students, as well as to graduate or professional students enrolled in school at least half time. PLUS loans do not have a cap on the amount that can be borrowed, but you can’t borrow more than the cost of attendance at the specific school you—or your child, if you're the parents—are attending. Cost of attendance is defined as tuition and fees, room and board, books, supplies and equipment, transportation, and miscellaneous expenses.
Unlike Federal Direct loans, PLUS loans do require a credit check but not a specific credit score. Borrowers cannot, however, have an adverse credit history unless someone agrees to be an endorser (co-signer) on the loan or they can prove extenuating circumstances for the adverse credit history. Apply for a Federal Direct Parent PLUS loan here and a Federal Direct Graduate PLUS loan here.
Private Student Loans
Private student loans come from banks, credit unions, and other financial institutions. The limits vary by lender but generally max out at the total cost of attendance at the school you or your child attends. In addition, most private lenders have a maximum loan amount that can’t be exceeded no matter how costly your school is. To apply for a private student loan, contact the lender directly.
When it comes to student loans, don’t borrow what you can—borrow what you can pay back.
Annual and Aggregate Loan Amounts
An important limiting factor when it comes to student loans is the total amount you borrow each year and in the aggregate over the course of your college career. Usually, your aggregate limit as a graduate or professional student includes amounts borrowed (but not yet repaid) as an undergrad. Likewise, aggregate loan limits for private loans usually consider amounts borrowed through federal loans.
Federal Direct aggregate limits are affected by your status (dependent or independent) as well as your parents’ eligibility to take out a Federal Direct Parent PLUS loan. If they are ineligible, your annual and aggregate limits are higher. Note: The amount of any Parent PLUS loan is not subtracted from your Federal Direct loan limit. Your limit is affected by whether your parents are eligible or not. Keep in mind that aggregate limits are not lifetime limits. As you pay down your student loan debt, your cumulative limit is refreshed.
Loan Eligibility by Type
While a good rule of thumb is to max out Federal Direct Subsidized loans, followed by Federal Direct Unsubsidized loans before turning to Parent PLUS or Grad PLUS loans with private student loans last, you must be eligible for each type of loan in order to apply.
Federal Direct Subsidized loans are available to students with demonstrated financial need who are enrolled in school at least half time. The formula is as follows: Demonstrated Financial Need = Cost of Attendance (COA) – Expected Financial Aid (EFA) – Expected Family Contribution (EFC). If the COA, for example, is $20,000, the EFA is $10,000, and the EFC is $5,000, your demonstrated financial need is $5,000 ($20,000 – $10,000 – $5,000 = $5,000). No matter your need, you can only borrow up to the limit listed in the table above based on your year in school. If you need more money, you can turn to an unsubsidized, Parent PLUS, or private loan.
Federal Direct Unsubsidized loans are available to undergrad or graduate level students regardless of financial need. You can borrow up to your limit but no more than the result of subtracting the cost of attendance from any financial aid you are receiving.
PLUS loans are available to parents or graduate students regardless of financial need. An adverse credit history can impact your ability to get a PLUS loan unless you have an endorser (co-signer) or can show extenuating circumstances for the adverse credit history.
Private student loans are available to anyone—undergrad, graduate, or parent—who can meet the requirements of the lender, which typically includes a credit check.