Affiliated Person

What Is an Affiliated Person?

An affiliated person is someone in a position to influence the actions of a corporation. This includes directors, officers, and certain shareholders. Depending on the context, an affiliated person might be referred to simply as an "affiliate." Affiliated persons may also be called control persons or insiders.

Understanding Affiliated Persons

In connection with a securities registration, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) expands the definition of an affiliated person quite broadly. Form S-11 defines an affiliated person to also include:

  1. Persons owning 10% or more of any class of a company's stock
  2. Any person who is a promoter of the company and connected with the company in any capacity
  3. Any principal underwriter of the securities being registered
  4. Any person providing management or advisory services for the company
  5. "Any associate of any of the foregoing persons"

Distinguishing affiliated persons from others is important in the regulation of securities transactions. Affiliated persons often have access to inside information and thus their transactions are more carefully regulated.

If an entity's business or larger amount of property is operating under an operating agreement or lease of a debtor, they are also considered an affiliate.

Special Considerations

In bankruptcy proceedings, affiliated persons are anyone who owns or controls any part of a company. A debtor is an individual or company filing for bankruptcy, so their affiliated persons would be those who own the debtor corporation...or those who own the owner of the debtor.

Affiliated persons who own 20% of the company or more or have voting power equal to that percentage are considered affiliates. In other words, an affiliate is a company or individual that owns 20% of a company. However, in reference to owners, who hold securities as a fiduciary, debt controller, or agency, such rules for affiliates do not apply.

In the context of a loan agreement, affiliated persons are individuals or entities, who control or own a large portion of the entity taking out a loan or offering a loan. Again, these affiliated persons can wield control over the organization, either directly or indirectly. However, these rules do not apply to subsidiaries of an entity.

Key Takeaways

  • An affiliated person is someone in a position to influence the actions of a corporation.
  • Affiliated persons can include directors, officers, and certain shareholders.
  • Affiliated persons often have access to inside information; consequently, their transactions are more carefully regulated.

In addition, if an organization operates under an operating agreement or lease of a debtor, that organization is considered an affiliated person.

By law, affiliate persons are restricted from engaging in certain actions, such as selling any security or other property to such registered company, or to any company controlled by such registered company—unless such sale only involves the following:

  • Securities issued by the buyer
  • Securities issued by the seller and which are part of a general offering to the holders of a class of its securities
  • Securities deposited with the trustee of a unit investment trust or periodic payment plan
Article Sources
Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy.
  1. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Rule 144: Selling Restricted and Control Securities." Accessed April 2, 2021.

  2. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Form S-11," Page 1. Accessed April 2, 2021.

  3. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Affiliate." Accessed April 2, 2021.

  4. Consumer Financial Protection. "§ 1024.15 Affiliated Business Arrangements." Accessed April 2, 2021.

  5. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. "Final Rule: Transactions of Investment Companies With Portfolio and Subadviser Affiliates." Accessed April 2, 2021.

Take the Next Step to Invest
The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where listings appear. Investopedia does not include all offers available in the marketplace.