# Amortization

## What is 'Amortization'

Amortization is the paying off of debt with a fixed repayment schedule in regular installments over a period of time for example with a mortgage or a car loan. It also refers to the spreading out of capital expenses for intangible assets over a specific duration (usually over the asset's useful life) for accounting and tax purposes.

## BREAKING DOWN 'Amortization'

Amortization is similar to depreciation, which is used for tangible assets, and to depletion, which is used for natural resources. When businesses amortize expenses, it helps tie the cost of the asset with the revenues it generates. For example, if a company buys a ream of paper, it writes off the cost in the year of purchase and generally uses all the paper the same year. Conversely, with a large asset, the business reaps the rewards of the expense for years, so it writes off the expense incrementally over several years.

## Amortization of Loans

On auto loan and home loan payments, at the beginning of the loan term, most of the monthly payment goes toward interest. With each subsequent payment, a greater percentage of the payment goes toward the loan's principal. For example, on a five-year \$20,000 auto loan at 6% interest, the first payment of \$386.66 allocates \$286.66 to principal and \$100 to interest. The last monthly payment allocates \$384.73 to principal and \$1.92 to interest. Similarly, mortgages can be amortized. See Investopedia's mortgage calculator below for an example.

## Amortization of Intangible Assets

To illustrate the amortization of an intangible asset, imagine XYZ Biotech spends \$30 million dollars on a patent with a useful life of 15 years. Theoretically, to account for the expense over a 15-year period, XYZ Biotech records \$2 million each year as an amortization expense.